Rockin’ around the Solstice tree…


Dreamed up, warped, bent and wrapped before being slapped down by


Yes, yeass…YEAHHHHHHH… it’s that one day of the year, the shortest day of the year, the least number of daylight hours which means the most number of darkness hours – perfect day to celebrate the modern living Vampyre culture, no?

Sooooooo… what can we get up to today?

Ahhh, yeah, my lovely lady wife and I were honoured to host a directors meeting of the GCVC last weekend, in conjunction with a birthday bash for Lady L. Great night, drink flowed, food, a humungous chocolate cake and a little of the red stuff to boot… mmmmmm…!!!

Had a good long yap about the developments planned for the Greater Chicagoland Vampire Coalition for the New Year and reviewed the bonds being forged, as we speak, with Vampire groups here in the Windy City.

It’s going to be exciting following the dynamic duo of Derek and Lady K that’s for sure…!

GCVC Facebook, GCVC Group on Facebook and GCVC Meetup




So, anyway.. along about this time of year there’s a lot of folks get to thinking about (and offering interpretations of) the meaning of Christmas right? Well, I’ve been doing some research and I reckon I’ve got it all worked out…

Anyway, there’s this fine lady by the name of Selena F. who writes for Circle… she’s got the goods on the solstice and this got me, a hardline neo-pagan, thinking…

Thinking about her advice for the winter solstice, things like,
“Celebrate Yule with a series of rituals, feasts, and other activities.” – Yup, I’m down with feasting…

“Have gift exchanges and feasts over the course of several days and nights as was done of old. Party hearty on New Year’s Eve not just to welcome in the new calendar year, but also to welcome the new solar year.”
Ooooohhhh…prezzies and booze… yup, I’m there.

“Convey love to family, friends, and associates.” – I LOVE YOU GUYS AN’ GALS, REALLY, I LURRRRRRRVE Y’ALL…!!! (Okay, got that covered Selena)

Doin’ well here….

“Honor the new solar year with light. Do a Solstice Eve ritual in which you meditate in darkness and then welcome the birth of the sun by lighting candles and singing chants and Pagan carols.”

Hey, yeah, I knew a Pagan by the name of Carol once… course, she was also known as “The Acid Queen” (…but that’s a whole ‘nother story…!!!)

This is all so cool…

“Reclaim Santa Claus as a Pagan Godform. Today’s Santa is a folk figure with multicultural roots. He embodies characteristics of Saturn (Roman agricultural god), Cronos (Greek god, also known as Father Time), the Holly King (Celtic god of the dying year), Father Ice/Grandfather Frost (Russian winter god), Thor (Norse sky god who rides the sky in a chariot drawn by goats), Odin/Wotan (Scandinavian/Teutonic All-Father who rides the sky on an eight-legged horse), Frey (Norse fertility god), and the Tomte (a Norse Land Spirit known for giving gifts to children at this time of year). Santa’s reindeer can be viewed as forms of Herne, the Celtic Horned God. Decorate your home with Santa images that reflect His Pagan heritage.”


“If you choose to have a living or a harvested evergreen tree as part of your holiday decorations, call it a Solstice tree and decorate it with Pagan symbols.”

OH-KAY… Let’s do it…!!!
Tree, Goats, Pagan symbols, pentagrams, deck the halls with….

…annnnnnd Merry Sol….

Wait, what?… whaddaya mean it’s…. Oh, OHHHHH… wooops, my bad…

Just remember kiddies, when all’s said and done, this Christmas…

HeeHeeHee… no, really… okay, okay, let’s break it down another way… does anybody think about the whole Jesus birth thing an’ stuff?

Yeah, been looking into that too…

Let’s see if we can follow this through…

So, we know from Roman Imperial census records that Joseph was returned to his home town in response to a census order from Caesar Augustus, in this case the town was Bethlehem since that was the “seat” of his Clan, The City of David. Okay, so far so good…

Oh, by the way, did I mention he was, reportedly, a carpenter by trade? So, Jesus’ (maybe) Dad was WORKING CLASS…!!!

Now, who was this bird Mary? How did Joseph meet her? At a disco? A bar mitzvah? Family wedding? On vacation? No one really knows it would seem. The best available theory seems to indicate that she was a 1st-century BC, Galilean Jewish, woman of Nazareth. What did she do for a crust? Was she working class? Nobody knows that either.

Here is where it all starts to get a bit “off track”.

The following canonical verses seem to perpetuate the idea that J.C. was descended (presumably by normal biological means) from The Clan of David which would but Joseph right in the hot-seat.

“Therefore being a prophet [David], and knowing that God had sworn with an oath to him, that of the fruit of his loins, according to the flesh, he would raise up Christ to sit on his throne.” Acts 2:30

“Of this man’s seed [David’s] hath God, according to his promise, raised unto Israel a Saviour, Jesus.” Acts 13:23

“Concerning his son Jesus Christ our Lord, which was made of the seed of David according to the flesh.” Romans 1:3

“Remember that Jesus Christ of the seed of David.” 2 Timothy 2:8

“For verily he [Jesus] took not on him the nature of angels, but he took on him the seed of Abraham. Hebrews” 2:16

“I Jesus have sent mine angel to testify unto you these things in the churches. I am the root and the offspring of David.” Revelation 22:16

So, no big stretch you say… J.C. was descended from the Clan of David because Joseph slept with Mary… except, she denied having been with a man…!!!

Hmmmmm… anyone know what the penalty for “out of wedlock” stuff was back then?

A suggestion allegedly made by contemporary critics of Jesus was that he was conceived out of wedlock with an unknown man. This might even have been involuntary which may have resulted in a “marital arrangement” being made with a man who was able to “overlook” the event.

Plausible… plausible… Jesus’ dad might even have been a Roman soldier… imagine that.

Now, we all know the popular canonical theory that she was visited first by the angel Gabriel and then, shortly thereafter by the Holy Ghost…

“When as his mother Mary was espoused to Joseph, before they came together, she was found with child of the Holy Ghost.” Matthew 1:18

“And, behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and bring for a son, and shalt call his name Jesus …. Then said Mary unto the angel, How shall this be seeing I know not a man. And the angel answered and said unto her, The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee.” Luke 1:31-35

Does that make one of your eyebrows go up?

So, contradictory explanations for the pregnancy of the millennia… Where to turn then?

Controversy rages as to whether Joseph and Mary ever engaged in conjugal relations, or had other children together, although a notable fact remains about Joseph is that not a single word is spoken by him in any of the Four Gospels and, what’s more, NO account is given of Joseph’s presumed agony? Anger? Disappointment? Over finding his virgin bride to be pregnant.

Perhaps the marriage contract didn’t stipulate that part.

So, now, here we are at Christmas… we are celebrating, what are we celebrating? Well, no one’s really sure… If you are of a Christian faith then you’re celebrating the birth of Jesus but if you’re not of the Christian faith then I mean the whole “present” thing is, as far as I understand it, supposed to emulate the giving of gifts by the “Three Wise Men”… the three Magi from the East. Question, if you had precious ointments, incenses and gold would you be inclined to just drop them in the first manger with a new-born in that you came across?

There’s something fishy about the whole thing if you ask me but hey, look on the bright side, you get presents don’t you? So thank your lucky stars, and the Christians that you don’t have to…

SERIOUSLY, no seriously…
From all of us at RVLI, whatever you’re having, Christmas, Yule, Solstice, whatever, may it be happy, safe and peaceful…

Now, y’all might be thinking, along about now, “Hey, this fella’s been thinking too much… been slipping in a few PRE-Chrissy drinks maybe, hmmm???”


But there is one thing more I been thinking on, “The Weekly Biatch”, yes, that outrageously popular segment where I treat y’all to my opinion on things, unchallenged, unmolested and unconditionally… well, I got to thinking there’s plenty of places around if you dig that sort of thing and really, what right have I to ram my thoughts down ya throats?

So, from today the “Biatch” is retired… to be replaced by the awesomeness of…

Soooooo, I been thinkin’…

Right about now, the season of peace and joy to the world being upon us, would be a great time to sit back with a drop of your favourite and simply reflect on the year that has been. Think back on the struggles and realise they are now behind you. Think back on the feuds, the snarkiness, the unfair criticisms you’ve levelled, the times you’ve sat down at the computer with popcorn, or pop-tart, loaded up Facebook and, with a sly smile, thought, “Okay, whose day can I fuck up and get a giggle out of it?”

REALLY? Why did all those things happen? What was your motivation? At days (or night’s) end did you really have a win by being a douchebag?

Yeah, I think that now would be a really cool time to sit and reflect and make a promise to be a better douch… NO..Noooo… I mean to NOT be a douchebag from hereon… the world would be a much better place don’t you think? Well, at least our little culture corner would.

Jus. sayin’

Be at peace y’all…

Copyright T & RVLI (except where otherwise noted) 2018

Refs. and Thanks to:

Selena F. writing at Circle


Naergi’s Costuming Site




NB: Where used, quoted portions of other works are reproduced by permission, or under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976, wherein allowance is made for “fair use” for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.

This article may be linked to but may not be copied or reproduced, nor redistributed in any manner, including electronic without the express permission of the copyright owners.

The views and opinions presented in this article are the opinions of the author and/or contributors and do not necessarily represent the views and opinions of The Owner/s of RVL International, their officers, assigns or agents. RVL International and its officers do not personally, individually, or jointly necessarily recommend or condone any of the activities or practices represented.

For further information please see the RVL International Website Disclaimer

( )

Crossroads 2018: Questions, Answers and Solutions

“To state the facts frankly is not to despair the future nor indict the past.” ~ John F. Kennedy ~

Written and Presented

It is, and has been, said that, “If you’re not part of the solution then you’re part of the problem.” Seems to be a reasonable enough statement when taken at face value but if you think about it the statement presupposes that a) There is a problem, b) You are intimately involved in, or contributing to, the problem and c) that there is actually a solution to be found.

The modern real living Vampire culture is made up of, looking purely at the North American continental population, several thousand individuals of varying degrees of involvement, of opinions, of personalities and of aims. Several thousand DIFFERENT opinions, aims, perceptions and opinions and this, in itself, presents an enormous problem when seeking to develop a common détente among the population.

Historically speaking it can be said that this is the very reason that any previous attempts at total unification, total détente or popular and widespread organisation have foundered – too many different and opposing views and opinions.

So, what are the REAL barriers to universal agreement that are in play here?

“Hmmmm…” img. source: worldartsme
  1. Different philosophies.
    There are, within the modern Vampire culture, hundreds of different philosophies at play which define, to a small percentage, the definitions, the goals, the personal needs and the outward requirements of modern real living Vampires. These philosophies, while they may be, in some general principal,roughly similar do not agree with each other entirely and this is where the rub begins. Different philosophies require that there are a number of believers in said philosophy and that these “believers” are willing to come together, in large numbers, to actively promote said philosophy. The fact of the matter is that each philosophy will have its die-hard supporters, it’s generally interested supporters and it’s “hanger on” contingent, the “flavour of the month” crew, if you will.

    The substance of the different philosophies will, in true modern culture style,always be put to the acid test and any chink in the armour of the philosophy will be revealed, exploited and ridiculed by the armchair critics among the culture. In essence the philosophy needs be put together like a state of the art modern warship to survive. Even after the philosophy is “weighed, measured and found wanting”, if I may steal a movie quote, there will still be the “die-hard” contingent who will refuse any attempt to deny their philosophy.
  2. “Swinging Voters”
    In any situation, question, debate, discussion, flame-war or whatever there will be those who are on the side-lines with “popcorn and soda” enjoying the spectacle as if they had ring side seats in the Coliseum in ancient Rome. These are the “swinging voters” within the modern culture and the ones who will, most likely flip and change their position frequently depending on where personal loyalties lie and depending on their general mood from month to month.
  3. ‘Ronin’ modern Vampires.
    The term Ronin has been hotly… debated? Argued? Contested? (Cross out whichever you think inapplicable) for a long, long time. We must all, surely by now, be aware that the historical referent for the term was that of a feudal Samurai who had no master nor house to serve. Today, in the modern culture, in common parlance, it means a modern living Vampire who has eschewed belonging to any house or answering to any head of house. There are an increasing number of “Ronin” in the modern culture, indeed, many of the large public groups that are populated online these days will boast a sizeable proportion of “Independents”,or Ronin, modern living Vampires.
Img. source: Freepik


Because by and large modern living Vampires do not like being told what to do.They especially do NOT like being told what to do by self-styled leaders who, in their eyes, do not have the ability to lead, the “cultural credentials” to lead nor the first idea about people skills. There are very few enclaves of Vampires left that can command the loyalty of their members because they are of sound principals, sound philosophies and good character. There will come a time, in the not too distant future, when the Ronin population will outnumber the “House” population in the modern culture… perhaps it already does but it is difficult to assess with the constant forming, closing, re-forming and generally fluid nature of the modern culture especially when it comes to the on-line aspect of things.

So, we have, at the base of the situation, those three factors –
Differing philosophies, “Swinging Voters” and Independence. So what really is the problem?

The problem is that everybody has their own idea about how things SHOULD be run. These “Should be” ideas rarely encompass, or consider, how things “COULD” be operating for the best and in this aspect it’s the old “My way or the Highway” concept. Having that outlook will find you on a lonely walk down a pretty much deserted highway.

Putting together large meetings of “Leaders”, “Elders” and respected peers is a fine concept in a general way but the likelihood of garnering mass appeal from this sort of thing is low. Long-term, ongoing, co-operative efforts at drawing together numbers of different organisations may fair slightly better but only in so far as the member organisations are willing, and able, to cooperate and contribute. Either concept will only ever include those who are willing to commit to the proposition/s and concepts of the “body politic”. Without popular support no amount of “councils”, “enclaves” or “governing bodies” will be effective, much less efficient, at solving any perceived problems within the modern culture.

The problems inherent in winning over the “swinging voters” depend very much on what sort of general policy can be wrought out of any organised attempt. The“swinging voters” are not stupid (for the most part) they look at substance and content, sensible and smart, common sense and reliable in the main – or they just go with whoever looks flashy enough to hang onto the coat tails of for awhile. Either way any attempt at corralling and garnering support here is very much a case of “winning the hearts and minds of the people” in which case it’s almost pseudo-political campaigning and we all know that pretty much EVERYONE is sick and tired of the popularly named “Political bullshit” – making something out of this is a tough call and is likely to present too many problems for anyone, individually, not to get swamped by.

The concept of “Independence” –
Since I have been in this country (March 2013) I have come to see how fiercely people like to protect, or perceive to protect, their independence,their right to choose, their concept of free will and freedom of expression. In this respect there is no real difference to people in any country in the world with, perhaps, the exception of third world countries that are ruled by iron-fisted dictators. In the modern Vampire culture “iron-fisted dictators” will be ignored ad laughed at so it’s no good going down that road.

Img. source: UC Santa Cruz Police Department

Modern Vampires will, and do, like everybody else, Vampire or not, cling to, and fight for, their right to choose their associations and their right to freedoms within that choice. No different to modern humanity. Winning over the “choice”to an individual philosophy, or group philosophy, takes a big net, lots of charm and political expedience, not to mention a huge amount of naturally earned, not self-assumed, respect – That’s a  BIG ask in anyone’s language.

Self-appointed “Leaders”, “Elders”, “Kings” and “Queens” are not there by popular vote, they are there because a minority of adherents or followers have decided, “Yeah, I like you…”. Within their own small circle “Leaders”, “Elders”and the like have the respect of their followers and members, they have the right to lead because it has been AGREED to be so by their immediate circle.Extending that position beyond one’s own localised borders is a battle and it’s a battle that will be a constant and ongoing feature of any attempt at organisation on a large scale. The smart “Leader”, “Elder” or “Grand PooBah”starts small, gets firm foundation, solid and respectable core of support and grows from there… won’t happen overnight but as the old saying goes, “Rome wasn’t built in a day”.

Ancient Rome – scale model by Italo Gismondo

Indeed, I remember back to 2010 when I first came on board at RVLI, RVN back then, and we had North American continental circulation with some small interest from the U.K and perhaps five or six other countries. We boasted a readership of perhaps a couple of hundred visits a month, look at our stats and circulation now – it’s been a journey, a long haul but one which, to my mind, has been well worth it.

This, I would argue, is the perception that anyone needs to go into large scale attempts with. Trying the old “Bull at a gate” approach is just too difficult to initiate, organise, control and keep control of. People burn out that way but hey, “It’s your life”. You want to put yourself under those kind of stresses, along with everything else that’s going on in your life right now, go ahead… no one’s gonna stop you.

That brings us to the proverbial $64,000 question –  

“Okay smartass, what’s the solution?”

The solution, to my mind – and remember this is only one person’s thoughts and opinion – is cooperation. Neat little word huh? Easy to spell, rolls off the tongue nicely and fits in a myriad of situations really well. 

“How do we achieve cooperation?”
By developing a mutually beneficial system. 

“What do you mean, mutually beneficial?”
Equal representation of ALL parties.

“Who’s gonna run it?”
Facilitators and Administrators. No Kings, Queens, Elders, Grand PooBahs orLord/Lady High Priesty WallahBollahDingDangs.

“What’s it for?”
Share information, coordinate efforts toward community works, and engender civil communications – anything that makes life better for everyone generally.

“Why do we need it?”
To remove the drama, bullshit and crap that we are wading nostril deep in.

Sounds reasonable doesn’t it? Unless of course you happen to be a self-important, narcissistic, ego-maniac with self-esteem issues then it really ain’t gonna work for you is it?

Something to think about, no?

Copyright T & RVLI (except where otherwise noted) 2018

NB: Where used, quoted portions of other works are reproduced by permission, or under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976,wherein allowance is made for “fair use” for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.

This article may be linked to but may not be copied or reproduced, nor redistributed in any manner, including electronic without the express permission of the copyright owners.

The views and opinions presented in this article are the opinions of the author and/or contributors and do not necessarily represent the views and opinions of The Owner/s of RVL International, their officers, assigns or agents. RVL International and its officers do not personally, individually,or jointly necessarily recommend or condone any of the activities or practices represented.For further information please see the

RVL International Website Disclaimer

Behold the TechnoVamp

ARTS “Cyborg”


Researched, Written and Edited



Two-thirds of the world’s population are now connected by mobile devices.

This milestone of 5 billion unique mobile subscribers globally was achieved in Q2 2017. By 2020, almost 75% of the global population will be connected by mobile.” [1]

This statistic presents the digital population worldwide as of October 2018. As of the measured period, almost 4.2 billion people were active internet users and 3.4 billion were social media users.” [2]

Let’s have a show of… hands…
How many of you rely on your cell phones every day? Get your wages or salaries by electronic payroll? Have stood in a supermarket completely paralysed because “the computers went down”? Do your shopping online and organise to get it home delivered? How many hours a week do you spend at computers, either at work or at home? How many hours on Facebook?

It’s been a well known adage for many years that we are “slaves to the system” and, given that “the system” is a technological marvel to rival the building of the great pyramids, by extension we are slaves to the technology. I don’t think that there’s anyone who can deny that one, single, simple, incontrovertible truth about modern life.

We’ve probably all read editorials dealing with both the ills, and the benefits, of modern technology. If not I would imagine that most everybody has seen movie offerings about technology, either saving or destroying, the human race. We’ve probably seen news reports on the television about “miracle machines” performing life-saving operations and that EMS people successfully employed the “Jaws of Life” to free a trapped car crash victim. No doubt, technology in the right hands, directed toward the right purpose can be a phenomenal thing.

Hazel O’Connor as Kate in “Breaking Glass”
Allied Stars Ltd., Film and General Productions &
Sprint N.V. 1980

“On the eighth day machine just got upset

A problem man had never seen as yet

No time for flight, a blinding light

And nothing but a void, forever night

He said: Behold what man has done

There’s not a world for anyone

Nobody laughed, nobody cried

World’s at an end, everyone has died

Forever amen (amen), amen (amen), amen (amen)”

Hazel O’connor
Eighth Day lyrics © Universal Music Publishing Group

So, based on the concept that the advent of the internet afforded the modern Vampire culture an unparalleled way to communicate and interact, on a global scale, has it helped or harmed? What’s the balance of accounts between the two?

As far as the modern Vampyre culture online goes the earliest reference point we have goes back to 1994 with the establishment of “Vampyres Only” ( – warning no security certificate for this site proceed at own risk) and the first web page devoted to the “Modern Real Living Vampire Culture”, the late Sanguinarius E. Sanguinarius’ web resource, appeared in the (Northern) spring of 1997.

Thus the mid to late nineties saw the advent of the “electronic age of Vampires”. What began as an idea to provide information, educational and support resources for, and about, modern Vampires has grown to become the “online VC” we know today and, as can be seen from our own records at RVL International, has become a global network.

Source: Quote Master

So, the exercise is meant to focus on whether this “growth”, whether this “online VC” has actually done more harm than good. At RVL International we do try to promote positive events and chat with real Vampires from all walks in the global culture but there are many, many other places out there that offer all sorts of… interesting things and times, that depict both the best, and the worst, that the online Vampire world has to offer. Probably the biggest single problem facing the modern culture in this arena is the sheer volume of “lies”, of “hate”, of “arguments” of “threats, counter-threats and bullying” that goes on… the latter of which, in electronic mediums, are against the law in most countries now. We know it’s not going to stop but does that mean we have to buy into it and swallow, “hook, line and sinker” anything that appears on our phones or monitors?

There is absolutely no doubt that the internet has given us the ability to have “a voice” and to exercise our right to speak that opinion but, arguably, exercising a guaranteed right, without exercising RESPONSIBILITY to go with it… wellll… doesn’t usually work out too well for anyone does it? Indeed, lies, libel, defamation, harassment, cyber-stalking, cyber-bullying, psychological manipulation and so on have all seen a dramatic, and in some cases fatal, rise over the years. Today more and more are going “Ronin” (no apologies for the use of the term) and becoming, or returning to, solitary in their practices. Web resources, such as “VampireFreaks” for example, have been connected to criminal stalking, assaults and the like but when you actually go and spend some time there, as I did a little while back, you find there are no “real Vampires” there, or if there are they are keeping such a low profile they may as well be six feet under. So the name, in the example, is simply a clever marketing strategy to attract audience numbers and, hopefully from that, members.

Ummmm, make that chocolate yeah?

There are, of course, specific, usually small, segments of the culture that involve themselves in good works that benefit not only themselves but also the society around them and these are the organisations that bring the deepest meaning, and value, to the entire culture. For the most part these organisations can be found keeping their own counsel, operating in specific local geographical areas and who decline to involve themselves in the “day-to-day” going on of the wider culture – especially the online culture. The biggest benefit of the technology here is that such organisations have access to a much, much bigger audience, and thereby potential attendees and supporters, than they would have without the technology. Indeed, we at RVL International take pride in helping highlight, support and spread the word about modern culture events and initiatives – the ones we do have, by and large, proven themselves to be most elegantly and professionally conducted but imagine, you are invited to an event, a social event say, the event details give a location and a day and time when the event will be on, you may get directions as to how to get there (one would hope so) and that’s it… you pay your money, your entrance fee, turn up. Questions, is it a dive bar for thugs, thieves and other low-life’s? Is it in one of those “bad” neighbourhoods we’re always hearing, or reading, about? Is there event security? If so, who… thugs? A gang? Professional security? Perhaps it’s out in the “boonies” someplace, an “idyllic holiday getaway” location… facilities? Local medical services? Where are you sleeping? Communally? Tents? Around a camp fire?

It is, for wont of information, a gamble if it’s something that has come to you across your monitor – best thing you can possibly do is speak to someone who lives/works there and ask them. Ask the event organisers the hard questions, if they can’t answer might I suggest that keeping your money in your pocket is not a bad bet. Good, reliable, organised hosts and promoters won’t hesitate to give you all the answers.

It’s like the old saying, “If it’s on your monitor it’s 0.1% true 99.9% horse puckey” and that in itself is an indictment of, not so much the technology but, the use to which technology is put. You could say, at this point, “It’s not the hammer that’s evil, it’s the person holding the hammer,” and you wouldn’t be far from wrong but if you know the “person” is evil why would you let them get hold of a hammer in the first place?

Technology, the best that can be said of it is that it is a double edged sword, you want the benefits? Well, ya gotta run the risks… just like them poor 5 million folks whose personal information “may” have been compromised in that hotel chain hack over the last couple of days. I suppose, if you don’t mind taking rash, ill-informed and unusual risks then go ahead, entrust your sanity, well-being and life to your technology, it’s your choice.

Somebody once asked, “Is there a safe, quiet, peaceful place in the VC anywhere?”
The answer is “Yes but it ain’t anywhere near any technology.”

Copyright T & RVL (Except where otherwise noted) 2018


NB: Where used, quoted portions of other works are reproduced by permission, or under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976, wherein allowance is made for “fair use” for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.

This article may be linked to but may not be copied or reproduced, nor redistributed in any manner, including electronic without the express permission of the copyright owners.

The views and opinions presented in this article are the opinions of the author and/or contributors and do not necessarily represent the views and opinions of The Owner/s of RVL International, their officers, assigns or agents. RVL International and its officers do not personally, individually, or jointly necessarily recommend or condone any of the activities or practices represented.

For further information please see the RVL International Website Disclaimer