So, we arrive at the latest, and up to date, section of our “alley walking”, we’ve woven our way through city by-ways from around 3200 B.C. and we’ve followed the threads of the history of the “Vampire” from its first recorded beginnings.
What have we seen? What have we read? What, if anything, have we learned and what, if anything, might we conclude?
So many questions…
As always we shall begin with a world Vampcentric timeline to get our heads into the game… Imagine that you are in a strange town and I am your guide…
A World Vampcentric Timeline 1964 to 2016
Jeanne K. Youngson founds The Count Dracula Fan Club.
Anne de Molay purchases a building in Philadelphia and founds the first incarnation of the Order of Maidenfear. After investigating the archetype of the vampire Anne arrived at the conclusion that vampirism was a very real interaction with life energy that could benefit the practitioner. This makes the premises, arguably, the first Vampire “House” in the United States.
The Vampire Research Society founded as a specialist unit within the much older British Occult Society. (Seán Manchester was responsible for the vampire research unit becoming a self-governing body on 2 February 1970.)
Also in 1967, Manchester, receives an account from a schoolgirl named Elizabeth Wojdyla and a friend of hers, whom claimed to have seen several graves opening in Highgate Cemetery, London; and the occupants rising from them. Elizabeth also reported having nightmares in which “something evil” tried to come into her bedroom.
Creation of ARPANET, the predecessor of the Internet.
Also in 1969, Elizabeth Wojdyla’s nightmares returned but now the malevolent figure actually entered her bedroom. She had reportedly developed the symptoms of pernicious anaemia and her neck displayed two small wounds suggestive of the classical vampyre bite. Manchester, and her boyfriend, treated her as a victim of vampirism and filled her room with garlic, crucifixes and holy water; her condition and symptoms were reported to soon improve.
On the Summer Solstice of 1970 the Order of Maidenfear declares its formal union and establishes, officially, House Maidenfear. It was the culmination of four years’ work beginning with Anne de Molay in 1966.
Before an assembled crowd of onlookers, Manchester and two companions entered a vault at Highgate where three empty coffins were found. They sprinkled the vaults with salt and holy water, lined the coffins with garlic and placed a crucifix in each.
In the summer (Northern) of 1970, David Farrant, another amateur vampyre hunter entered the field. He claimed to have seen the Highgate vampyre and went hunting it with a stake and crucifix but was arrested.
In August the body of a young woman was found at the cemetery. It appeared as though the woman had been treated as a vampyre by decapitating and attempting to burn the corpse. Before the end of the month, police arrested two men whom claimed to be vampyre hunters.
Also in 1970, Stephan Kaplan founds The Vampire Research Centre.
True Vampires of History by Donald Glut is the first attempt to assemble the stories of all the historical vampire figures.
Dracula Society; The – Founded by Bernard Davies and Bruce Wightman in U.K.
The Order of The Vampyre was founded in 1975 by priests of the Church of Satan (founded in 1966) whom had decided to carry forward the serious work of the Church in a more historic, less anti-Christian context. The Temple of Set is configured as an “umbrella” organization that has a number of specialized “orders” whose members concentrate on specific areas of research and black magic applications of the results of that research.
June 3, 1976
Goddess Rosemary founds the Black Rose Coven in New York City.
Martin V. Riccardo founds the Vampire Studies Society.
Sean Manchester begins an investigation of a mansion near Highgate Cemetery that had a reputation as being haunted. On several occasions Manchester and his associates entered the house. In the basement they allege to have found a coffin, which they dragged into the backyard. Opening the casket Manchester reportedly saw the same “vampire” he had seen seven years before in Highgate Cemetery. This time, it was reported, he performed an exorcism by staking the body which “turned into a slimy, foul smelling substance, and burned the coffin”.
Also in this year Richard Chase, dubbed “The Vampire Killer of Sacramento” commits the first of a series of murders. (The second murder in 1978 involved consuming the victim’s blood.)
Eric Held and Dorothy Nixon found the Vampire Information Exchange.
Further reports of dead animals found drained of blood from an area called Finchley. Manchester believed that a vampyre created by the bite of the Highgate Vampyre was the cause.
The first vampire RPG, “Ravenloft”, was released as a “Dungeons and Dragons” module featuring the vampire Count Strahd von Zarovich.
David Dolphin presented a paper to the American Association for the Advancement of Science outlining a theory that porphyria might underlie the reports of vampirism. He argued that since the treatment for porphyria was the injection of heme, it was possible that in the past people suffering porphyria might have attempted to drink blood as a method of relieving their symptoms.
Among those whom critiqued Dolphin’s hypothesis was Paul Barber. Firstly, Barber noted, there was no evidence to show that the consumption of blood had any effect on the disease itself and only held up as long as one did not look at the available data too closely and discounted the powers of observation of those making the reports. Such reports which did not support the theory that any of those reported exhibited the symptoms of Porphyria.
Also in 1985, the founding members of the Black Rose Coven, under the guidance of Goddess Rosemary form the Z/n Society.
The retail outlet “Siren” is founded by Grovella Blak. Located in Toronto, Canada it is the world’s oldest establishment catering to the enthusiasms of the overlapping communities devoted to the Goth and Vampyre genres.
The British Occult Society is formally disbanded by President Sean Manchester.
The secretive; international, Temple of The Vampire (ToV) is founded.
By far the most popular vampire (RPG) role-playing game is entitled “Vampire: The Masquerade” is created by Mark Rein-Hagen and published in 1991 by White Wolf Game Studio.
The Transylvanian Society of Dracula is founded in Bucharest by a group of leading Romanian historians, ethnographers, folklorists, tourist experts, writers and artists; as well as non-Romanian experts in the field.
The live venue La Commedia del Sangue: Vampyr Theatre opens in NYC. The scripts are based on interviews with existing vampire communities and occult groups conducted by playwright Tony Sokol.
The Sanguinarium is founded by Father Sebastian Todd (a.k.a Aaron Todd Hoyt, Todd Sabertooth Father Todd, Father Sebastian, Father Todd Sebastian, Sebastiaan Van Houten) This leads to the establishment of the Ordo Strigoi Vii.
Oprah Winfrey forms “prayer circle” outside the premiere of the film adaptation of Anne Rice’s “Interview with the Vampire” to work against the forces of darkness she believes the film is calling down.
Sean Manchester writes an account of his perspective on “The Highgate Vampire” (1995, rev, 1991)
A female reporter named Susan Walsh disappears while writing a story on downtown Manhattan’s mysterious “vampire underground”.
Sean Manchester expands on and releases “The Vampire Hunter’s Handbook”.
The remarkable Long Black Veil or “LBV” events truly hold a unique place in the history of New York City’s nightlife. LBV began in 1997 as “Long Black Veil & the Vampyre Lounge” on the second Wednesday of each month at the legendary MOTHER nightclub on 14th and Washington Streets in New York City. The Black Veil
The Black Veil represents a code of vampyre ethics and common sense widely accepted by the vampyre subculture. It is akin to the Strigoi Vii Covenant and although they are different documents they are, in essence, compatible.
Originally authored in 1997, by Father Sebastian of House Sahjaza, it was written as a code of conduct for patrons of the vampyre haven, Long Black Veil, in New York City.
The original ‘Black Veil’, now referred to as version 1, was derived from Renaissance Fair etiquette and from existing codes of conduct in the BDSM / fetish scene. There was, undoubtedly, some influence absorbed from the White Wolf Game Studio role playing game Vampire: the Masquerade as this afforded the only set of “terms” being used in the community at the time. The Black Veil was amended by ‘Lady Melanie’ in 1998 and 1999, and has been revised since then by Michelle Belanger of House Kheperu.
In the spring (Northern) of 1997 the first webpage of Sanguinarius.org appears.
Katherine Ramsland (clinical psychologist; journalist and bestselling biographer) made contact with Father Sebastian Todd and asked him to serve as a consultant for a book she was writing entitled “Piercing the Darkness: Undercover with Vampires in America Today .” Her intention was to follow in the last known footsteps of investigative reporter Susan Walsh (who disappeared around the same time as the historic Vampyre Ball at the Limelight in July 1996.) A release party for the book was held at LBV in 1998.
The Z/n Society, under Goddess Rosemary comes to its latest incarnation, Temple-House Sahjaza.
The original Iron Garden (1998-2003) is founded. The founding elders are, Lord Vahmp of House LIDEIM, Lord Kage of House Gangrel, Lord Ramirez of House Ramirez, Scorpio of House Draconus and Ronin Elders Lord Vailen Moon and Madame X.
Sphynxcat’s Real Vampires Support Page established on the internet.
The website Vampire-church.com was first registered in April.
COVICA, a council of collected elders from different traditions, again revised the Black Veil. It was at this time that the publication gained widespread popularity and was translated into Portuguese, German and Spanish. It was also distributed as the “13 Rules of the Community”.
2000 saw the closing of MOTHER but Father Sebastian chose to continue the event by relocating to True nightclub on 23rd Street near Broadway in Manhattan. LBV remained there for two more years.
The Vampire Codex is written by occultist and psychic vampire Michelle Belanger and published by Sanguinarium Press. The Vampire Codex has a significant impact on the worldwide community of psychic vampires, becoming the fundamental text used by numerous Houses, Orders, Covens, and Clans. It has influenced the teachings of vampire groups throughout the US, Canada, and Western Europe.
Also in 2000, Ronin Elders Madame X and Lord Vailen Moon conceived the House of the Dreaming and founded it along with Wulfsunus and Algernon.
The Vampire Research Society Worldwide Organisation is founded.
Michelle Belanger, along with input from Father Sebastian and others, presented The Black veil version 2 as a philosophy and tradition of ethics, not rules. This code is annotated as being voluntary and was designed to set an example for the community. This updated and simplified version of the Black Veil was not declared as a set of laws or rules and no longer carried the alternative title “13 Rules of the Community,” but was written as an example set of ethics and ideas.
The web/culture resource Smoke and Mirrors is created and opened by Lady CG.
A&E’s Secret Lives of Vampires documentary is made with interviewees: Michelle Belanger and Lady CG.
History Channel’s Vampire Secrets airs with interviewees The Madame Webb, Father Sebastiaan, Michelle Belanger, ‘Vlad’ and ‘Sky’. This is the documentary that deals with Dr. Slate’s research.
The Vampire & Energy Work Research Survey (VEWRS) with 379 Questions and the Advanced Vampirism & Energy Work Research Survey (AVEWRS) with 688 Questions are conducted. From 2006 to 2009 a combined response total (VEWRS & AVEWRS) reached over 1,450 surveys or over 670,000 individually answered questions; making it the largest and most in-depth research study ever conducted on the real vampire/vampyre community or subculture. The surveys are translated from English into French, Spanish, German and Russian. In all seventeen countries are represented: Australia, Bahrain, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, France, Ireland, Latvia, Malaysia, Mexico, Morocco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Romania, Russia, United Kingdom and the United States.
The group body, Voices of the Vampire Community (VVC) is founded to develop friendly relations among the various Houses, Covens, Orders, organizations, and individual leaders of the vampire community.
Jonathon “The Impaler” Sharkey’s bid for Minnesota Governor is cut short when he is arrested by Minnesota police on an outstanding Indiana arrest warrant.
History Channel’s Monster Quest (S2, E11) entitled ‘Vampires in America’ airs with interviewees: Joy Poulos and Michelle Belanger (http://sphynxcatvp.nocturna.org/media/documentaries.html)
In film: Writer/Director Laurent Courau releases a documentary entitled “Vampyres” (Avalanche Productions) Narrated by Emmett Williamson the documentary stars Father Sebastian, Michelle Belanger, Don Henrie, Ice Pick, Lord Rex, Lukas Zpira and The Madame Webb.
In late 2007 “Dark Nations” is founded by Madame X of House of The Dreaming and Lord Khan, initially gathering over 2 dozen Houses and Orders into a collective effort designed to encourage communication and interactions through the Vampire, Therian and Otherkin society world-wide.
The first results of the VEWRS and AVEWRS surveys are released.
Jonathon “The Impaler” Sharkey threatens to impale George W. Bush and is investigated by the United States Secret Service
In literature: Michelle Belanger’s book “Vampires; In Their Own Words” is released.
Pardubice, East Bohemia, July 11. Archaeologists believe they have uncovered a 4000-year-old grave in Mikulovice, eastern Bohemia, containing the remains of what might have been considered a vampire at the time. One of the graves, from the early Bronze Age burial site was situated somewhat aside from the others and the male skeleton in it was weighed down with two big stones, one on his chest and the other on his head.
“Remains treated in this way are now considered as vampiric. The dead man’s contemporaries were afraid that he might leave his grave and return to the world,” Radko Sedlacek from the East Bohemia Museum said.
Real Vampire News is conceived and started by John Reason. The aim is to become a “newspaper” type resource for the online participants of the modern real vampire subculture.
The Atlanta Vampire Alliance and Suscitatio LLC commence a second series of studies to complement the 2006-2009 VEWR’s and AVEWR’s surveys. This effort will reportedly include involve the collection of medical testing and information.
The National Center for Missing and Exploited Children issued an alert after a 16-year-old girl from Faribault, Minnesota ran away with Jonathon Sharkey. The alert described the teenager as an “endangered runaway”.
In Italy the Liga Italiana Real Vampires association was founded by (current) Presidente Davide Santandrea. June 2012
Two medieval “vampire” skeletons emerged near a monastery in the Bulgarian Black Sea town of Sozopol, local archaeologists announced. Dating back 800 years to the Middle Ages, the skeletons were unearthed with iron rods pierced through their chests — evidence of an exorcism against a vampire.
2012 also saw the discovery of a skeleton, dating from 550-700AD, buried in the ancient Minster town of Southwell, Nottinghamshire, U.K. with metal spikes through its shoulders, heart and ankles.
October 1, 2012
John Reason’s Real Vampire Life E-Zine begins a yearlong survey of the real vampire sub-culture entitled “The Living Vampire – A social survey”, aimed at gathering social and demographic information about the modern Vampire culture.
The Liga Italiana Real Vampires becomes a legally recognised entity in Italy.
September 31, 2013
John Reason’s Real Vampire Life survey, “The Living Vampire – A social survey”, concludes.
November 3rd, 2013
I.C.E – A proposed International Council of Elders is formed by Stefan Resurrectus and a group of long time and active members of the modern vampire culture.
December 30, 2013
First publication of part one of the results of “The Living Vampire – A social survey” is published on John Reason’s Real Vampire Life E-Zine (http://realvampirenews.com/)
The (New Jersey) IRON GARDEN was resurrected in 2014 by Madame X, Traveler Asura-MacPhee, Finna Beruthiel DeElf, Herr Wulfsunus, Blueeyesoulof Ra Horakhty & Asif Murad.
March 6, 2014
After a lengthy hiatus Lady CG announces the re-opening of Smoke and Mirrors as a resource and active website.
Alexia Ashford establishes a blog site which goes on to become Sanguinarians.com
It will later develop to become “The Red Cellar” (March 2016)
August 5, 2015
Merticus Stevens of the VCN, VVC, Atlanta Vampire Alliance and Suscitatio Enterprises LLC posted advice of a tragic event that rocks the modern vampire world. The passing of Sanguinarius E. Sanguinarius, a.k.a. Sangi.
Her legacy, and contribution, to the modern vampire movement will never be forgotten nor will it ever be underestimated.
Stemming from the web resource Sanguinarians.com “The Red Cellar” web resource is launched as a sister site in March. The new site quickly takes over as the primary website and becomes the base for the Med-Sang group.
Following on from a widely distributed appeal for donations toward running costs Merticus Stevens announces the closure (Oct 31) of the web resource Vampire Community News (VCN) and foreshadows the closure of other web resources.
June 2017, The “Unity Project” and web resource “Blood Nations” are established in the modern Vampire Culture.
Organised and developed by King (Heir Apparent to New Orleans) Maven Lore of The House of Lore, King Logan South of the Vampire Court of Austin and Queen of the Vampire Court of Memphis, Lady Gia Ahlia Bathory von Ecsed, Countess of Cachtrice. The combined projects aim at uniting, voluntarily, as many Houses, or ‘Courts’, as possible into one cooperative, unified, entity.
John Reason’s Real Vampire Life E-Zine tops 200,000 page views since rebuilding the site from a catastrophic server crash in 2012.
The RVL E-Zine establishes a recorded readership in more than 100 countries around the world and, for the first time, holds to a page view standard of over 2500 page views per month.
There can be no doubt that the time frame, 1964 to 2016, has been one of the most fluid and ever changing periods in the history of modern man. In the 1960’s, under the banners of “Equal Rights”, “Gay Rights”, “Civil Rights” and the horrendously destructive Vietnam war the period became one of minority rights and anger. By the end of the decade, in many ways, community and consensus lay in tatters. The enduring legacy of the era, to this day, remains mixed and while it brought empowerment and polarization, resentment and liberation it became a permanent part of the world’s political and cultural life.
The 1970’s decade was, in many respects, a continuation of the 1960s. Women, African Americans, Native Americans, gays and lesbians and other marginalized people continued their fight for equality, and many people joined the protest against the ongoing war in Vietnam. A “New Right” political consciousness developed in defence of political conservatism and the traditional family.
With the 1980’s a whole new outlook, in many quarters, in much of the free world, led by American policies of the time, believed that the spread of communism threatened freedom everywhere and, as a result, the political administrations of this so-called “free-world” were eager to provide aid to anti-communist governments and insurgencies around the world. The “Cold War” made many people, around the world fearful. These times were also marked by the rise of “Yuppiedom”. The “yuppie”, a baby boomer with a college education, a well-paying job and expensive taste, at first, appearing self-centred and materialistic, became the major motivating force for economic and social growth trends.
Culturally, the 1990s were characterized by the rise of multiculturalism and alternative media. In the absence of “global” communism, which collapsed in the first two years of the decade, the 1990s was marked by a move towards right wing parties, including increase in support for far-right parties in Europe 
“A combination of factors, including the continued mass mobilization of capital markets through neo-liberalism, the thawing of the decades-long Cold War, the beginning of the widespread proliferation of new media such as the Internet from the middle of the decade onwards, increasing scepticism towards government, and the dissolution of the Soviet Union led to a realignment and reconsolidation of economic and political power across the world and within countries. The dot-com bubble of 1997–2000 brought wealth to some entrepreneurs before its crash between 2000 and 2001.”
The 1990s saw extreme advances in technology, and the rise of “ethnic” conflicts in Africa, the Balkans, and the Caucasus. Signs of any resolution of tensions between Israel and the Arab world remained elusive despite the progress of the Oslo Accords, though The Troubles in Northern Ireland came to a standstill in 1998. 
Where were the Vampires during all of this?
Against the backdrop of the social consciousness shifts of the 60’s the “Vampire” largely maintained a fictional and popular entertainment presence. The popular series of “Hammer Films” dealing with our good friend Count Dracula was, undoubtedly, the most visible sign of the Vampyre in mainstream consciousness but, in line with esoteric thinking and sub-cultural shifts of the period there came, at least in one important respect, an event that in many ways led on from the work of Pierart and Dion Fortune in the earlier part of the century and the latter 19th Century.
The first active move in the culture came in 1966 with the purchase and establishment of what is arguably, and quite literally, the first “Vampire” house in Philadelphia. Based on principal thinking of Psi Vampirism the establishment of the premises heralded a hitherto unseen “organisation” of groups of modern day Vampires.
From there, through the 70’s and 80’s, the appearance of the older Vampire “houses” grew from the concept, and existence of “Covens” until the mid-seventies and the eighties brought about a more widespread embrace of the archetype.
Naturally, with the advent of the new forms of “mass media” and the explosion of ‘block buster’ movies during the 80’s, the way was well and truly paved for people to represent and re-define themselves in unprecedented ways and through hitherto inaccessible channels.
It is always tempting to ask, “Did popular entertainment have a big role in the development of the modern Vampyre image?” The simple answer is, no more than any other time period of history.
Fact: 3200 B.C. Cuneiform writings in Sumeria exist in which Lilith appears as one of a group of Sumerian vampire/cannibal demons that included Lillu, Ardat Lili and Irdu Lili.
Fact: The first mention of the word “vampir” was discovered in a Slavic document that was Russian in origin. The Book of Prophecy written in 1047 AD.
Fact: William of Newburgh’s Historia Rerum Anglicarum relates, in Chapters 32 to 34, relate to a number of stories of contemporary revenants. Accounts such as that of Alnwick and Melrose Abbey have been repeatedly cited as evidence of a vampyre lore existing in the British Isles in ancient times.
Fact: 1190 Publication. Walter Map’s De Nagis Curialium includes accounts of vampire-like beings in England.
Fact: 1591 Reports. The accounts of the Shoemaker of Breslau, a man who, after having committed suicide was buried in a hurry by his family after they concealed the manner of his death. A short time after burial it was reported that a “ghostly likeness” of the man was harassing people around the town and the harassments became worse including, reported injuries to some of those visited. The decision was taken to exhume the body which exhibited no sign of decay but was reportedly found to be in excellent condition, even down to the growth of new skin on the feet. Neither exhumation, nor re-burying the corpse under a gallows, helped with the problem and so it was ordered that the corpse should have its head and feet cut off. (Barber, Paul: Vampires, Burial and Death: Folklore and Reality)
Fact: 1597 Reports. The accounts of the matter of Clara Geisslerin, a 69-year-old widow in the town of Gelnhausen, Germany. Geisslerin was accused of witchcraft. Among other charges that she reportedly confessed to, under torture, was included drinking the blood of sixty children that she had killed.
Fact: The death of Jure Grando, an Istrian (Croatian) peasant, who lived in Kringa, a small place in the interior of the Istrian peninsula. Although he died in 1656 he was disinterred and was decapitated as a vampire in 1672. Upon disinterment those present reported to have found what was said to be a perfectly preserved corpse with a smile on its face. One of the men there, Stipan Milašić, took a saw and decapitated the corpse resulting in an articulated noise and the free flow of “fresh” blood.
Fact: 1727 Reports. The case of Arnold Paole (Arnont Paule in the original documents; early German) a Serbian hajduk, was reported. On the fortieth day after his burial, with two military surgeons present, the coffin was exhumed and opened. Inside they found a body that appeared as if it had just recently died. What appeared to be new skin was present under a layer of dead skin and the nails had continued to grow. Upon being pierced the body poured blood from the wound. Those present judged Paule to be a vampyre and the corpse was staked; reportedly uttering a loud groan at this
Fact: 1728 Reports. One Peter Plogojowitz (also given as; Petar Blagojevich) dies in a village named Kisilova in Austrian occupied Serbia, not far from the site of the Paole case. Reportedly, three days after his burial, in the middle of the night, he entered his house and asked his son for food. He ate and then left. Two evenings later he is said to have reappeared and again asked for food. His son refused and was found dead the following day. Shortly after this several villagers fell ill from exhaustion which was diagnosed as caused by an excessive loss of blood.
Fact: 1731 Reports. In the same area as the case of Arnold Paole (1727) 17 people died in the space of three months, of symptoms believed to be those of vampirism. Reportedly, the townspeople were, at first, slow to react until one girl complained of being attacked by a man, recently deceased, named Milo.
Fact: 1797. The first mention of vampires in English literature appears in Robert Southey’s monumental oriental epic poem “Thalaba the Destroyer“.
Almost 2600 years of history prior to the first “popular entertainment” mention of the name Vampire.
Whether you choose to write off this history as superstition and folklore; including the written reports of professional military medical men and physicians who were witnesses, I would suggest that in choosing to use the name Vampire one is unavoidably associating themselves with the age old archetype.
Now, unfortunately, beginning in the 19th Century this “archetype” became the guide for heinous acts by disturbed individuals, that is one of the, forgive me, “crosses” that all modern Vampires have to bear. As with everything, it is a personal choice, if you call yourself Vampire you own, in part, the heritage and lineage of the name.
This story is not over, this history is not over, we are writing the next chapter – creating the next part of the history of Vampires and, whether we like it or not, sometime in the year 2094 or so modern living Vampires are going to look back and ask, “What did they do back then?”, what are they going to find? They’ll find a line, a lineage, a heritage that stretches back into the farthest reaches of recorded human history, they’ll find a history that is as old as mankind’s and which will resonate with each succeeding generation from here on out. Question is, What shall WE leave them?
My beautiful lady wife, and Assistant Manager, Lady M for putting up with this project, and me…
Goddess Rosemary Sahjaza, High Elder Priestess Liath Sahjaza, Elder Nicolette Michelle LaFleur and Elder Tony Sokol of Temple-House Sahjaza, Madame X of House of The Dreaming – NJ Iron Garden and Dark Nations, Lady Emilie of Ophiucus Vampires International/Order of Maidenfear, Vice-President Lady Maria Amico of Lega Italiana Real Vampires Italy and Lady Alexia Ashford of The Red Cellar.
1) Merkl, Peter; LEONARD, Weinberg (2 August 2004). “Right-wing Extremism in the Twenty-first Century”. Routledge
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