The next timeline, version1

"Vampire Women" - www.freakingnews.com

“Vampire Women” – www.freakingnews.com

Presented by

T.

The Vampire Line-up
Rev. 1 – 07/18/14

Welcome,

Sometime in 2010 I went looking for a “comprehensive” and complete vampyre history timeline. What I found was that there were many and of that number many were simply “copy & paste” versions of each other. Some had a little extra thrown in. Most stopped with the history at around the turn of the twentieth century and then diverted into popular fiction lists and entertainment. Some just stopped dead. There were very, very few that represented much ‘History’ after Bram Stoker’s Dracula or some of the early twentieth century so called ‘vampire’ crimes.
I decided to devote some time and effort to putting together The Ultimate Vampire Timeline, which is now at Version 9. One thing that becomes very clear from the beginning of a project of that nature is that the commonplace archetype of the unfeeling, predatory, blood sucking, Godless undead monster that is called Vampire has had a lot of help in remaining just that.

In Britain the Guardian newspaper interviewed a forensic psychologist from Edinburgh named Ian Stephen, regarding the acts of a “vampire” killer, he stated:
The cult of vampirism is to do with power and dominance, using blood to give you energy and immortality. If someone had ridiculed him, he may have needed to compensate for this – something like vampirism may have given him what he was looking for.”

In a paper entitled Psychological Perspectives on Vampire Mythology, psychologist Margaret L. Shanahan offers an extraordinarily detailed, yet succinct and highly readable look at the psychopathology of the vampire archetype, a look which, at once, draws both pity and distaste.
When we say history of vampire crimes the first two names that almost invariably pop out of the hat are those of Countess Elizabeth Báthory de Ecsed (Erzsébet Báthory in Hungarian) and her fiendish and sadistic predecessor Vlad III, Prince of Wallachia of the House of Drăculești, Although these two infamous figures are inextricably entwined with vampire folklore there is, in actual fact, no real and supportable reason for them to be.

One thing I want to make very clear from the start ~ I CLAIM NO COPYRIGHT IN THIS MATERIAL. I compiled this from many sources both electronic and written. I keep an alert open for “creditable” instances of historical significance and I accept suggestions from anyone as to things that, in their opinion, constitute vampiric crime history. I take those suggestions, I read and research for corroborating information and I cross-reference everything before I put it in the timeline. I have included lists or links to all the initial sources and as it grows so will that bibliographical list.

So, we will begin with the earliest, provable, prosecutable and recorded case of a “Vampire” crime that I have discovered so far… Martin Dumollard of Montluel, France.
The following list is the initial effort at compiling the most comprehensive list of “Vampire” crimes and criminals I can. Why? Because I like learning stuff like that and because the Vampire, in its contemporarily imagined form, has fueled some of the most heinous crimes ever committed. It’s true that murder is a particularly terrible crime – perhaps the worst that one person can inflict upon another but think about this, what characterises the worst forms of murder?
What can I say, it’s a labour of love, and I hope it is of some intrigue to you, dear reader.
Regards,
T.

 

Vlad III Elizabeth Bathory

“Vampire” Crimes in History

1861
Martin Dumollard of Montluel, France, was convicted of murdering several young girls whose blood he drank.

1872
Vincenzo Verzeni of Bottanaucco, Italy, was sentenced to life imprisonment in two cases of murder and four of attempted murder. He confessed that drinking the blood of his victims gave him immense satisfaction.

1897
Joseph Vacher of Bourg, France, while on a walking tour through the country, killed at least a dozen people and drank their blood from bites in their neck. He was finally captured, convicted, and executed.

1916
Following a notice that Bela Kiss, of Czinkota, Hungary, had been killed in World War I, neighbors searched his property and found the bodies of 31 individuals, all of whom had been strangled. Each corpse possessed puncture wounds in the neck and had been drained of blood.

1920
Baron Roman von Sternberg-Ungern, a nobleman in post-revolutionary Russia, drank human blood on occasion, seemingly in connection with a belief that he was a reincarnation of Genghis Khan.

1924
Fritz Haarmann (a.k.a The Vampire of, or The Butcher) of Hanover, Germany, is arrested, tried and convicted of killing more than 20 people in a vampiric crime spree.

1931
Peter Kurten of Dusseldorf, Germany is executed after being found guilty of murdering a number of people in a vampiric killing spree.

heath diana peter

1946
June. Neville George Clevely Heath, 29, England’s “Gentleman Vampire.” Heath would pose as an army officer to lure women to hotel rooms. On June 20 a cabdriver saw Heath in the company of Margery Gardner, 33, who was found murdered the next day. She’d been suffocated and whipped unmercifully by something with a metal tip. Her nipples were bitten off and she’d been brutally raped with a blunt instrument.

1947 – Elizabeth Short of Hollywood, California, was murdered and her body dismembered. Later examination discovered that her body had been drained of its blood before the dismemberment.

1949
In England, John George Haigh, the infamous “Acid Bath Murderer,” is hanged. He was also known as the “Vampire of London.”

1959
Salvatore Agron, a 16-year-old resident of New York City, was convicted of several murders that he carried out at night while dressed as a Bela Lugosi-style vampire. In court he claimed to be a vampire.

1960
Florencio Roque Fernandez of Manteros, Argentina, was arrested after being picked out of a line-up by 15 women who said someone had entered their bedroom, bit them, and drank their blood.

1963
Alfred Kaser of Munich, Germany, was tried for killing a 10-year-old boy. He drank blood from the boy’s neck after stabbing him.

1968
Wayne Boden began a spree of killings that bore similarities to “vampire” murders. Up until his capture in 1971 he raped and killed 5 women in Montreal and Calgary, Canada.

The murders were characterized by strangulation, rape, and being bitten all over the breasts.

1969
Stanislav Modzieliewski of Lodz, Poland, was convicted of seven murders and six attempted murders. One witness against him was a young woman he attacked, who pretended to be dead while he drank blood from her. Modzieliewski confessed to thinking that “blood was delicious.

1970
August. The body of a young woman was found at the Highgate Cemetery in London. It appeared as though the woman had been treated as a vampyre by decapitating and an attempt being made to burn the corpse. Before the end of the month, police arrested two men whom claimed to be vampyre hunters.

1971
Wayne Boden was arrested for a series of murders that began in 1968. In each case he had handcuffed the victim, raped her, and then bit her and sucked blood from her breast.

1973
Kuno Hoffman of Hurnber, Germany, confessed to murdering two people and drinking their blood and to digging up and drinking the blood of several corpses.

1977
Richard Chase, dubbed “The Vampire Killer of Sacramento” commits the first of a series of murders. He killed six people in the span of one month (December 29 to January 27) cannibalizing their remains and drinking their blood.

Crutchley claux andrade

1978
Andrei Chikatilo (a.k.a the Rostov Ripper and the Shelter Belt killer) claimed his first victim (a nine year old girl by the name of Lena Zakotnova) on December 22nd, and would go on to kill 52 more. Mutilation of the eyes and complete or partial removal of the sexual organs became two signatures of his grisly crimes. He targeted adolescent boys and girls, often raping and cannibalizing them, as well as drinking their blood.

1979
Richard Cottingham was arrested for raping, slashing, and drinking the blood of a young prostitute. It was later discovered that he had killed a number of women, and in most cases had bitten them and lapped up their blood.

1980
James P. Riva shot and killed his handicapped grandmother while she sat in her wheel-chair, and then stabbed her several times in the heart. He drank the blood that gushed from her wounds and set fire to her house to get rid of the evidence. He claimed to be “a 700-year-old vampire who needed to drink her blood“, but went further to claim she was also a vampire and that she “fed on him at night while he slept.

1982
Julian Koltun of Warsaw, Poland, was sentenced to death for raping seven women and drinking their blood. He killed two of the women.

1984
Renato Antonio Cirillo was tried for the rape and vampire-style biting of more than 40 women.

1985
John Brennan Crutchley was convicted of kidnapping and rape. He was also suspected of murdering more than 30 women, but was never tried nor convicted of those crimes. He was called the “Vampire Rapist” because he drained the blood of his victim almost to the point of death while he repeatedly sexually assaulted her.

1987
A jogger in a San Francisco park was kidnapped and held for an hour in a van while a man drank his blood.

1988 – An unknown woman picked up at least six men over the summer in the Soho section of London. After she returned home with a victim, she slipped drugs into his drink. While he was unconscious, she cut his wrist and sucked his blood. She was never arrested.
1988
Tsutomu Miyazaki mutilated and murdered four little girls. His murders spanned 1988–1989 and took place in Tokyo’s Saitama Prefecture.

1991
Marcelo de Andrade grew up in Rio de Janeiro’s Rocinha Slum. As a child, he was the victim of physical and sexual abuse. Around April he began a killing spree that would last nine months and claim 14 victims, who were all poor young boys. He raped all his victims and confessed to drinking their blood, claiming to have done so in order to “become as beautiful as them”.

1992
Deborah Joan Finch was tried for the murder of a neighbor. She stabbed the victim 27 times and then drank the flowing blood.

1994
Nicola Claux, a man described as a “nearly psychotic sadist”, is arrested. Upon interrogation, he confessed to murder and grave robbing. When his apartment was searched, police found unidentified skeletal remains and blood stolen from the local blood bank.

1995
Lisa Manderach went on a quick errand to a new children’s clothing store in Collegeville, Pennsylvania on September 10. She took her daughter, Devon, only nineteen months old, and that was the last time anyone saw either of them alive. (The details of this case are from the Philadelphia Inquirer.)
Caleb Fairley, 21, had been minding the store for his mother. When located, he presented as a strong suspect: His face was covered with fresh scratches. He said he’d gotten them in the scramble of a “mosh pit” at a local club called the Asylum, but a doctor’s examination indicated they were from fingernails. He was arrested.
In order to get a plea deal Fairley showed authorities where he had placed Lisa’s body behind an abandoned industrial building in a wooded area of King of Prussia. From the exposed position, it was assumed that Lisa had been sexually assaulted. She was taken for an autopsy.
The media was quick to learn about Fairley’s dark background. He’d played Dungeons & Dragons, had groped or propositioned women, was known to read pornography avidly, and collected vampire paraphernalia. He’d also joined the Asylum, a members-only nightclub that resembled a padded cell and catered to people who dressed in Goth-style clothing and sported dramatic make-up as part of the vampire subculture.

Susan_walsh11996
A female reporter named Susan Walsh disappears while writing a story on downtown Manhattan’s mysterious “vampire underground”. (See addendum 1)
1996
“Vampire” killer Roderick Ferrell, the teenaged leader of a “Vampire Clan”, along with a few of his followers from Murray, Kentucky, arrived in Eustis, Florida and murdered the parents of his girlfriend, Heather, so that she could be initiated into his coven.
Upon his arrest, Ferrell told police that they would never be able to contain him because he was, “an all-powerful, 500-year-old vampire named Vesago”.

1998
Katherine Ramsland (clinical psychologist; journalist and bestselling biographer) made contact with a gentleman by the name of Father Sebastian Todd and asked him to serve as a consultant for a book she was writing entitled Piercing the Darkness: Undercover with Vampires in America Today . Her intention was to follow in the last known footsteps of investigative reporter Susan Walsh (who disappeared around the same time as the now famed Vampyre Ball at the Limelight in July 1996.)

1998
San Francisco. Joshua Rudiger, 22, claimed to be a 2,000-year-old vampire and went about the city slashing the necks of vulnerable homeless people with a knife. He hurt three men and killed a woman sleeping in a doorway, and when one victim’s identification led to his arrest, he claimed that he needed to drink human blood.
Prey is prey,” he told investigators.

2001
German husband and wife, Daniel and Manuela Ruda, murdered Daniel’s co-worker and friend, stabbing him 66 times, hitting him with a hammer and drinking his blood. Afterwards, they had sex in Manuela’s coffin.

2001
July. In Colorado, Kirk Palmer, 28, killed Antonia Vierira with a shotgun because he believed that Vierira had turned his girlfriend into a vampire. He was charged with murder,

2002
Welsh teenager Mathew Hardman stabbed a 90 year old neighbor, Mabel Leyshon, 22 times, he then removed her heart and drank her blood.

2003
Allan Menzies was obsessed with the 2002 vampire film Queen of the Damned, which he watched as many as three times each day, Menzies began to believe that the main character, Akasha, was real and wanted him to kill someone so that he, too, could become a vampire. “I knew I had to murder somebody,” Menzies said at his trial. Menzies stabbed a friend 42 times, hit him with a hammer, drank his blood and consumed part of his brain.
2003
June. In Australia, Shane Chartres-Abbott, 28, was executed in his home. He was a male prostitute, and allegedly his killers were a pair of hit men. Chartres-Abbott was on trial for rape, and just as its fifth day was about to commence, he was found murdered. At the trial, he claimed he was a vampire, and among the charges was that, during the rape, he had bitten off the tongue of a female client. He also said he drank people’s blood.

2004
A 39 year old computer technician, in Germany, named Rafael, was arrested for attacking a 15 year old boy for the purpose of sucking his blood.
2004,
March, Timothy White was arrested outside a church in Jacksonville, Florida for shooting a co-worker twice at a Westside Domino’s pizza delivery store. He allegedly believed that his victim, David Harrison, was a vampire and that he, White, was a vampire slayer. He shot Harrison, 22, in the face and stomach.

2005
Ukraine, Diana Semenuha, 29, was arrested for luring street children to her home to drink their blood. She admitted to the deed. The Odessa press, which dubbed Semenuha “the vampire witch,” reported she invited the children in with promises of food and a bed, gave them alcohol and had them sniff glue to make them pliable, and then bled them. Whatever she did not use herself, she sold to practitioners of black magic who participated with her in the Black Sea port’s occult network.

lady vamp killers2006
December. Jessica Stasinowsky & Valerie Parashumti murdered a 16-year-old girl who had lived with them for 11 days. The victim, Stacey Mitchell, was bludgeoned with a concrete block, then strangled with a dog chain. The killing was captured on a mobile phone video camera.
Parashumti’s lawyer told the court that his client had experimented with drinking blood and had been associated with vampire sub-culture since she was a child. Throughout the trial, neither of the accused showed any remorse, instead giggling as the details of the murder were read.
2006
August. Nathaniel Chipps shot Teresa Tracy McCartney in the head outside Rockport, Arkansas. Chipps, 21, claimed that McCartney, 35, had told him she was a vampire and wanted to suck his blood. He’d shot her in self-defense. However, it was found that he’d taken drugs that night and was hallucinating at the time of the incident.

2007 (– 2010)
32 year old Philip Oyancha confessed to Kenyan police that he had murdered and drunk the blood of his victims. (Murder toll of at least 17 – possibly 19)
2007
Valentine’s Day and Robert McDaniel, 46, learned to his dismay he was with a “vampire.” McDaniel voluntarily allowed his “friend,” Tiffany Sutton, 23, to tie him up. She’d been staying with him for a couple of days and had agreed to participate in “kinky” sex, Sutton, whom he barely knew, had tied him up and then pulled out several knives and a pickax. She sliced him across the leg with one of the knives, and when he demanded to know what she was doing, she allegedly told him she liked to drink blood and wanted to drink his. Then she placed her mouth to his fresh wound and did so.

2008
Jeffrey “Draven” Mitchell told U.S. Marshals he is a 225-year-old vampire when arrested in Virginia Beach on charges of sexually assaulting a 4-year-old in Jacksonville, FL., as well as two other young girls. Police say Jeffrey Mitchell, 30, who called himself “Draven,” always wore black clothes and capes, and placed caps over his teeth to make them look like vampire fangs.

2009
The Edmonton Sun reported a story about 20 year old “Buffy.” The woman had become involved with a local vampire group including Joseph Laboucan and Michael Williams. She eventually took part in the brutal murder of 13 year old Nina Courtepatte. According to court records, Courtepatte was lured with stories that she was the “chosen one”, only to be raped twice before the group before being beaten and stabbed to death.

2010
August, and Mauricio Lopez found out that his niece (Mariella Mendez) was having an affair with her sister’s husband, Macario Cruz, he stabbed Macario Cruz in the heart and liver; in front of Mendez and her four children. He then proceeded to fill a plastic cup with Cruz’s blood and drank it before fleeing the scene.

2010
A German man identified only as Jan O. killed a 14-year-old girl, who he dragged into the woods, intending to rape her. He then stabbed her in the neck with a piece of broken bottle, bit off pieces of the wound and drank her blood. Five days later he kidnapped a 13-year-old boy who he thought was a girl because of his long hair. Upon discovering the child was a boy, Jan O. stabbed him to death. In his confession, Jan O. wrote, “I did not want sex anymore, only flesh and blood…I am addicted to the taste.

2010
Evan Francis Brown, 20, told Alabama police that he is a vampire and a Satanist after being arrested for allegedly burning a “V” into the forehead of a 17-year-old boy in December. Police say Brown tied up the victim, beat him and burned him with cigarettes, then used a hot fork or spoon to brand his face. He was charged with second-degree assault.

2010
Matthew Lovrine, a Wisconsin teenager, was charged with multiple sex crimes, including two felony counts of sexual assault, in December, 2010, after one of his victims told her mother about a sexual relationship they had started when she was 15. The girl reported that she began dating Lovrine, 17, in 2009, while he was already dating a 17-year-old girl. The three became involved in a “polygamist relationship,” according to reports. Lovrine allegedly told the girls that “he is a vampire and will cut them and drink their blood,” and had punched them and cut them with a knife on several occasions. Police say Lovrine also bragged about cutting his victims with razor blades and drinking their blood before his arrest.

2011
22-year-old Josephine Smith attacked a 69-year-old homeless man as he slept in St. Petersburg, Florida. Smith allegedly told the man that “I am a vampire, I am going to eat you,” before she bit off pieces of his face, lips, and arm. Police found Smith, covered in blood, at the crime scene but claiming to have no recollection of the incident.

gulfinski mitchell menzies2011
August. Roy Gulfinski Jr. (a.k.a. Caius Domitius Veiovis) is charged, along with two others, with first-degree murder for the killings of three men in Massachusetts.
Earlier, in 2000, he was convicted of elevated aggravated assault, aggravated assault and reckless conduct for slicing open the back of a female victim, then licking the blood while kissing his girlfriend. Gulfinski and his girlfriend at the time, were described as “being involved in vampire sub-culture” and enjoyed drinking their own blood and the blood of others. After his arrest, Gulfinski told police that he was a satanic worshipper and a vampire.

2011
Galveston, TX., police say 19-year-old Lyle Monroe Bensley forced his way into a woman’s apartment, where, wearing only boxer shorts, he entered her bedroom, and began to hit and bite her while making growling sounds. The victim managed to escape and get into a neighbor’s car. After a short pursuit, police arrested Bensley, who reportedly told them, “I’m a vampire, and I’ve been alive for over 500 years,” and that he just “needed to feed.”

2011
July, Florida teen, Stephanie Pistey, was arrested for the killing of Jacob Hendershot. Police say Pistey’s friends and codefendants lured Hendershot to a house where Pistey was babysitting, killed him, and dumped his body in a storm drain.

Pistey claims that she’s a vampire, fueling police suspicion that the alleged killers were involved in a vampire cult. In an interview, Pistey, 18, told a local news station, “Since I was like, 12…I know this is going to be crazy, but I believe that I’m a vampire. Part of a vampire and part of a werewolf.” She reportedly claims that she has drunk the blood of her 25-year-old fiancé and co-defendant, William Chase.

 

If you believe you have valid information regarding ANY crime please contact your local law enforcement agency; it may be nothing… then again it may be everyting

 

If you would like to suggest an inclusion to this project please use the contact form, or send us an email to: rvlmail@yahoo.com

 

Special thanks to mjxero; http://www.angelfire.com/goth2/vampirestudies/records.html for filling in some of the blanks.

References:

http://www.crimelibrary.com/photogallery/im-a-vampire.html?curPhoto=1
listverse.com/2011/01/19/top-10-vampire-serial-killers/
mentalfloss.com/article/51204/8-real-life-vampire-crimes
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Brennan_Crutchley
www.crimelibrary.com/serial_killers/weird/vampires/1.html
The Vampire Killers by Katherine Ramsland
http://www.crimelibrary.com/serial_killers/weird/vampires/7.html

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Katherine_Ramsland) BIO
http://www.crimelibrary.com/serial_killers/weird/vampires/10.html
http://www.cnn.com/
http://www.charleyproject.org/cases/w/walsh_susan.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vlad_the_Impaler
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth_B%C3%A1thory

 

Further reading:
in Ungaria suis *** regibus compendia data, Typis Academicis Soc. Jesu per Fridericum Gall. Anno MCCCXXIX. Mense Sepembri Die 8. p 188–193, quoted by Farin
Hesperus, Prague, June 1817, Vol. 1, No. 31, pp. 241–248 and July 1817, Vol. 2, No. 34, pp. 270–272
Alois Freyherr von Mednyansky: Elisabeth Báthory, in Hesperus, Prague, October 1812, vol. 2, No. 59, pp. 470–472, quoted by Farin, Heroine des Grauens, pp. 61–65.
The Vampire Book: The Encyclopedia of the Undead by J. Gordon Melton, PhD. Visible Ink Press

 

Addendum 1:
The unsolved disappearance of Susan Walsh.
July 16, 1996,

36 year old Susan Walsh hurriedly dropped her son David off at her estranged husband’s house. (Nutley, New Jersey)
She claimed she would return within a few minutes, but never did.
Torn from the calendar where she kept her daily schedule was the month she disappeared: July 1996.
Walsh made no apparent preparations to leave home. She left behind nearly all of her personal belongings, including her purse, money and medication. Most important, police say, she left behind her only child, David.

In 1988 she wrote a story, for New York’s free-wheeling “Village Voice,” about Russian mobsters in New Jersey who were allegedly forcing young Russian women to work in strip clubs like slaves. Susan earned praise for her article, but she also received threats and felt she may have made enemies.

In the early nineties, bizarre vampire clubs began appearing in New York’s Greenwich Village, many of the wealthy clientele claimed to be real blood drinkers. Susan started researching this vampire world, even dating a man who claimed to be part of the undead. Susan wrote a detailed article about vampirism, but became upset when the “Village Voice” did not run her story.

June of 1996, a month before she vanished, Susan had done primary research for the book “Red Light: Inside the Sex” by James Ridgeway and Sylvia Plachy. However, the night of the publisher’s party, Ridgeway noticed that Susan’s wrists were bandaged, and he learned that she was taking tranquilizers and had started drinking again.

Two days after her friend Jill last saw her, Susan mysteriously disappeared.

Some believed that she collapsed from depression and poor health, but police realized that if that were the case, her body would have been found by now or she would have surfaced in a hospital.

Her family and friends believe her continued absence meant that she was deceased.
The authorities decided that for some unknown reason, Susan chose to disappear.

Detectives have spoken to several people who have claimed to have seen Susan.
One of her old friends, Melissa Hines claims that a month after Susan vanished, she saw her next to a black car, and when she yelled her name, Susan and the men she was with went into the car and drove off. The license plate number was tracked down, and the driver said he believed that he was with Susan around the time she was spotted, but he could not be certain. Melissa believes that if Susan is alive, she may be deliberately hiding out because she was in danger and that the mob was after her.

Before she vanished, Susan and her friend Melissa were followed several times.
To this day, nobody knows what really happened to Susan Walsh.

Suspected: Many believe that Susan met with foul play and that her disappearance was related to either the Russian mob, or it was related to the vampire clubs and cults.
Some believe she died of a drug overdose.
The police believe she left on her own accord.

Detective Lt. Steven Rogers of the Nutley Police Department became involved in the case in 2003 when he was assigned to command the department’s detective bureau.

The fact remains that, in the mysterious case of Susan Walsh, there is, very likely, someone out there who does know.

 

Addendum 2:
The Blood Countess” – Countess Elizabeth Báthory de Ecsed (Báthory Erzsébet in Hungarian; 8 August 1560 – 21 August 1614)
“The case of Elizabeth Báthory inspired numerous stories during the 18th and 19th centuries. The most common motif of these works was that of the countess bathing in her victims’ blood to retain beauty or youth. This legend appeared in print for the first time in 1729, in the Jesuit scholar László Turóczi’s Tragica Historia, the first written account of the Báthory case. The story came into question in 1817, when the witness accounts (which had surfaced in 1765) were published for the first time. They included no references to blood baths. Sadistic pleasure is considered a far more plausible motive for Elizabeth Báthory’s crimes.

The legend nonetheless persisted in the popular imagination, perhaps in part because of Báthory’s connection to Transylvania and vampire lore. Some versions of the story were told with the purpose of denouncing female vanity, while other versions aimed to entertain or thrill their audience.
The vampirism connection extends to the 21st century documentary Deadly Women, where she is profiled in the first episode of the series as maintaining her good looks by iron supplementation she obtained by drinking her victims’ blood.

Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth_B%C3%A1thory
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