Crossroads 2018: Questions, Answers and Solutions

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“To state the facts frankly is not to despair the future nor indict the past.” ~ John F. Kennedy ~

Written and Presented
By
Tim

It is, and has been, said that, “If you’re not part of the solution then you’re part of the problem.” Seems to be a reasonable enough statement when taken at face value but if you think about it the statement presupposes that a) There is a problem, b) You are intimately involved in, or contributing to, the problem and c) that there is actually a solution to be found.

The modern real living Vampire culture is made up of, looking purely at the North American continental population, several thousand individuals of varying degrees of involvement, of opinions, of personalities and of aims. Several thousand DIFFERENT opinions, aims, perceptions and opinions and this, in itself, presents an enormous problem when seeking to develop a common détente among the population.

Historically speaking it can be said that this is the very reason that any previous attempts at total unification, total détente or popular and widespread organisation have foundered – too many different and opposing views and opinions.

So, what are the REAL barriers to universal agreement that are in play here?

“Hmmmm…” img. source: worldartsme
  1. Different philosophies.
    There are, within the modern Vampire culture, hundreds of different philosophies at play which define, to a small percentage, the definitions, the goals, the personal needs and the outward requirements of modern real living Vampires. These philosophies, while they may be, in some general principal,roughly similar do not agree with each other entirely and this is where the rub begins. Different philosophies require that there are a number of believers in said philosophy and that these “believers” are willing to come together, in large numbers, to actively promote said philosophy. The fact of the matter is that each philosophy will have its die-hard supporters, it’s generally interested supporters and it’s “hanger on” contingent, the “flavour of the month” crew, if you will.

    The substance of the different philosophies will, in true modern culture style,always be put to the acid test and any chink in the armour of the philosophy will be revealed, exploited and ridiculed by the armchair critics among the culture. In essence the philosophy needs be put together like a state of the art modern warship to survive. Even after the philosophy is “weighed, measured and found wanting”, if I may steal a movie quote, there will still be the “die-hard” contingent who will refuse any attempt to deny their philosophy.
  2. “Swinging Voters”
    In any situation, question, debate, discussion, flame-war or whatever there will be those who are on the side-lines with “popcorn and soda” enjoying the spectacle as if they had ring side seats in the Coliseum in ancient Rome. These are the “swinging voters” within the modern culture and the ones who will, most likely flip and change their position frequently depending on where personal loyalties lie and depending on their general mood from month to month.
  3. ‘Ronin’ modern Vampires.
    The term Ronin has been hotly… debated? Argued? Contested? (Cross out whichever you think inapplicable) for a long, long time. We must all, surely by now, be aware that the historical referent for the term was that of a feudal Samurai who had no master nor house to serve. Today, in the modern culture, in common parlance, it means a modern living Vampire who has eschewed belonging to any house or answering to any head of house. There are an increasing number of “Ronin” in the modern culture, indeed, many of the large public groups that are populated online these days will boast a sizeable proportion of “Independents”,or Ronin, modern living Vampires.
Img. source: Freepik

Why?

Because by and large modern living Vampires do not like being told what to do.They especially do NOT like being told what to do by self-styled leaders who, in their eyes, do not have the ability to lead, the “cultural credentials” to lead nor the first idea about people skills. There are very few enclaves of Vampires left that can command the loyalty of their members because they are of sound principals, sound philosophies and good character. There will come a time, in the not too distant future, when the Ronin population will outnumber the “House” population in the modern culture… perhaps it already does but it is difficult to assess with the constant forming, closing, re-forming and generally fluid nature of the modern culture especially when it comes to the on-line aspect of things.

So, we have, at the base of the situation, those three factors –
Differing philosophies, “Swinging Voters” and Independence. So what really is the problem?

The problem is that everybody has their own idea about how things SHOULD be run. These “Should be” ideas rarely encompass, or consider, how things “COULD” be operating for the best and in this aspect it’s the old “My way or the Highway” concept. Having that outlook will find you on a lonely walk down a pretty much deserted highway.

Putting together large meetings of “Leaders”, “Elders” and respected peers is a fine concept in a general way but the likelihood of garnering mass appeal from this sort of thing is low. Long-term, ongoing, co-operative efforts at drawing together numbers of different organisations may fair slightly better but only in so far as the member organisations are willing, and able, to cooperate and contribute. Either concept will only ever include those who are willing to commit to the proposition/s and concepts of the “body politic”. Without popular support no amount of “councils”, “enclaves” or “governing bodies” will be effective, much less efficient, at solving any perceived problems within the modern culture.

The problems inherent in winning over the “swinging voters” depend very much on what sort of general policy can be wrought out of any organised attempt. The“swinging voters” are not stupid (for the most part) they look at substance and content, sensible and smart, common sense and reliable in the main – or they just go with whoever looks flashy enough to hang onto the coat tails of for awhile. Either way any attempt at corralling and garnering support here is very much a case of “winning the hearts and minds of the people” in which case it’s almost pseudo-political campaigning and we all know that pretty much EVERYONE is sick and tired of the popularly named “Political bullshit” – making something out of this is a tough call and is likely to present too many problems for anyone, individually, not to get swamped by.

The concept of “Independence” –
Since I have been in this country (March 2013) I have come to see how fiercely people like to protect, or perceive to protect, their independence,their right to choose, their concept of free will and freedom of expression. In this respect there is no real difference to people in any country in the world with, perhaps, the exception of third world countries that are ruled by iron-fisted dictators. In the modern Vampire culture “iron-fisted dictators” will be ignored ad laughed at so it’s no good going down that road.

Img. source: UC Santa Cruz Police Department

Modern Vampires will, and do, like everybody else, Vampire or not, cling to, and fight for, their right to choose their associations and their right to freedoms within that choice. No different to modern humanity. Winning over the “choice”to an individual philosophy, or group philosophy, takes a big net, lots of charm and political expedience, not to mention a huge amount of naturally earned, not self-assumed, respect – That’s a  BIG ask in anyone’s language.

Self-appointed “Leaders”, “Elders”, “Kings” and “Queens” are not there by popular vote, they are there because a minority of adherents or followers have decided, “Yeah, I like you…”. Within their own small circle “Leaders”, “Elders”and the like have the respect of their followers and members, they have the right to lead because it has been AGREED to be so by their immediate circle.Extending that position beyond one’s own localised borders is a battle and it’s a battle that will be a constant and ongoing feature of any attempt at organisation on a large scale. The smart “Leader”, “Elder” or “Grand PooBah”starts small, gets firm foundation, solid and respectable core of support and grows from there… won’t happen overnight but as the old saying goes, “Rome wasn’t built in a day”.

Ancient Rome – scale model by Italo Gismondo


Indeed, I remember back to 2010 when I first came on board at RVLI, RVN back then, and we had North American continental circulation with some small interest from the U.K and perhaps five or six other countries. We boasted a readership of perhaps a couple of hundred visits a month, look at our stats and circulation now – it’s been a journey, a long haul but one which, to my mind, has been well worth it.

This, I would argue, is the perception that anyone needs to go into large scale attempts with. Trying the old “Bull at a gate” approach is just too difficult to initiate, organise, control and keep control of. People burn out that way but hey, “It’s your life”. You want to put yourself under those kind of stresses, along with everything else that’s going on in your life right now, go ahead… no one’s gonna stop you.


That brings us to the proverbial $64,000 question –  

“Okay smartass, what’s the solution?”

The solution, to my mind – and remember this is only one person’s thoughts and opinion – is cooperation. Neat little word huh? Easy to spell, rolls off the tongue nicely and fits in a myriad of situations really well. 

“How do we achieve cooperation?”
By developing a mutually beneficial system. 

“What do you mean, mutually beneficial?”
Equal representation of ALL parties.

“Who’s gonna run it?”
Facilitators and Administrators. No Kings, Queens, Elders, Grand PooBahs orLord/Lady High Priesty WallahBollahDingDangs.

“What’s it for?”
Share information, coordinate efforts toward community works, and engender civil communications – anything that makes life better for everyone generally.

“Why do we need it?”
To remove the drama, bullshit and crap that we are wading nostril deep in.

Sounds reasonable doesn’t it? Unless of course you happen to be a self-important, narcissistic, ego-maniac with self-esteem issues then it really ain’t gonna work for you is it?

Something to think about, no?


Copyright T & RVLI (except where otherwise noted) 2018

NB: Where used, quoted portions of other works are reproduced by permission, or under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976,wherein allowance is made for “fair use” for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.

This article may be linked to but may not be copied or reproduced, nor redistributed in any manner, including electronic without the express permission of the copyright owners.

The views and opinions presented in this article are the opinions of the author and/or contributors and do not necessarily represent the views and opinions of The Owner/s of RVL International, their officers, assigns or agents. RVL International and its officers do not personally, individually,or jointly necessarily recommend or condone any of the activities or practices represented.For further information please see the

RVL International Website Disclaimer



Sweet Home Chicago

Written, edited and Presented by

Tim

Good evening,
I’m going to kick off the new month with something that’s close to our hearts over here…
Back in July this year we had the privilege of being able to spend a little time with one of the founders of the Greater Chicagoland Vampire Coalition, Derek Lestat.

Since then the GCVC has been organising itself, and establishing itself, as an important facet of the modern Vampire culture in Chicago. Accumulating a respectable following both on-line and at its live Meet-Up events that are being held, on a regular basis, in the windy city.

We decided to catch up with the GCVC again and see what has transpired since we last highlighted this important, hometown, initiative, accordingly, it gives us great pleasure to welcome back to RVL GCVC Director Derek Lestat and to welcome, for the first time, GCVC Assistant Director Lady Kimberly.

********************

RVL: Good evening Derek, welcome back and a warm welcome to you Lady Kimberly, it’s great to be able to catch up with The GCVC again… too long between drinks eh?

K: It’s always too long between drinks, right? Really, it is great to chat with you and get out what we have been up to.

D: Especially too long between if Tim’s buying…

RVL: *laughs* In speaking with Derek, back in July, confidence was high for the new Chicago based GCVC. Can you tell our readers a little about what’s been happening – internally – with the GCVC since then?

D: Quite a lot, actually, a lot more than meets the eye or that we’re letting on about. We’ve been spending the past few months just laying the groundwork for a number of big projects that, for the moment, we’re keeping close to the vest.

RVL: …and we’ve been seeing some encouraging growth in the live Meet-Up side of the venture… how has that been shaping up?

D: It’s been shaping up quite well, actually. Thus far every Meet-Up not only brings us new faces each month, but also many returning faces.

K: I definitely have to say this is this is one of my favorite parts about being with the GCVC: getting to know everyone who comes out, whether it’s a newly awakened Vampire or someone who has been in the community for a while now. We also have our fair share of Therian and otherkin brothers and sisters who like to join us from time to time.  Everyone has a great time sharing their experiences and getting to know one and other.

Lady Kimberly
Assistant Director GCVC

RVL: Apart from the live, regular, local Meet-up events what plans are afoot, without revealing any “State Secrets” of course, for future events?

D: Without revealing any secrets, eh? Well… For one, we’re looking to amp up the Meet-Ups in a few ways. One is to continue rotating the venues across the expanse of the Chicagoland area, to cover a wider area. Let’s say you’re up on the North Side, and can’t make a Meet-Up on the South Side or the Western Burbs. Don’t worry, we’ll be rotating around to you, too. And we’re always open to more suggestions for future venues.
Also, we’re looking to swap out a few of the “regular” Meet-Ups for some “upgraded” events. Like what? Well there are so many options for a city the size of Chicago. We can visit any of the cultural institutions, take tours or day-trips. One “secret” I’ll let out of the proverbial bag for you is: we’re looking to an unprecedented GCVC Meet-Up this summer at the Bristol Renaissance Fair, where we’ll plan on hooking up with and meeting our Wisconsin brethren. We’ll be announcing the details of that this coming summer.

K: On top of everything we have going on here at home there are those of us who like to mix it up a bit. We enjoy getting out there and attending some of the events put on by other members in the VC all over the country. A few of us will be heading out in February to visit some of the amazing events out west. I think seeing how different areas operate is very beneficial. We are always looking for ways to connect with people in the community.

RVL: As far as the online contact and interaction for followers what resources are available for people to be able to keep up with the GCVC?

K: Of course, there is our Facebook page and group, both Greater Chicagoland Vampire Coalition.

https://www.facebook.com/GreaterChicagolandVampireCoalition/?ref=bookmarks

https://www.facebook.com/groups/253495805195734/?ref=bookmarks

We also have our Chicago Vampire Meet Up page https://www.meetup.com/vampires-21/. You can email us directly at GCVC.Chicago@gmail.com.

Derek Lestat –
Director GCVC

D: We’re looking into other social media options, as well. If you’re fortunate enough to have friended us on Facebook, you can always message us either via the page, group, or individually.

RVL: …and are there any planned developments in this area? New website perhaps? A blog edition?

K: We are currently in the process of developing a website. So be on the lookout for that.

RVL: Anything big planned for the Yule season or is it better a case of steady as she goes and look ahead to spring 2019?

D: Aside from our Meet-Up in early December, we’re taking a little time for ourselves and everyone else to just enjoy the holidays. Everyone will have their get-togethers and obligations, and in addition to that our Council will have a big and busy 2019 to prepare for.


RVL: Is the GCVC planning a group set-up specifically for ‘Greater Chicago Area’ vamps to join or is the focus going to be on getting Chicagoland followers to the live Meet-Ups a preference?

D: First things first. With what we have in mind, we’re not taking things too fast. First, we want to get our name out there, get people (vampires, therians, Otherkin, any “Night-kind”, even Mundanes; we’re not about excluding) together, start making new friendships. We want to show everyone what we have to offer, give them a taste of what’s to come, and work on growing from there.

K: I agree with Derek. I think we have a pretty good idea of what we want to be. However, as we grow there is always a possibility that things may shift to fit the needs of whoever comes our way. I think our number one goal is to make sure that everyone who reaches out gets what they need out of their time with us (within reason). There are many possibilities that fall in line with that kind of thinking. Any organization that wants to succeed needs to be flexible. It needs to be able to configure itself to fit the needs of those they are serving to move forward. It’s a big undertaking in a big city but we are willing to take a shot at it.

D: What she said.

RVL: …again, without ‘spilling the beans’, what other little projects do the GCVC have in the offing?

D: It’s probably safest to say that we’re looking to turn up our volume in 2019, start making some more noticeable noise. We aim to start going beyond only Meet-Ups.

RVL: …maybe a national invitational event in the not too distant future?

D: Well, there is the big Elders Summit and Leadership Conference coming up next spring. It’s open to anyone, well, except for the part that’s for VC Elders and Leaders only. This is bound to be an historic gathering in the VC, and the GCVC is honoured to be one of the first groups to be included and sponsoring the event.

K: I am really looking forward to the conference. I always welcome an opportunity to learn. It sounds like there are going to be some really great things happening there.

Copyright GCVC 2018

RVL: Sounds like the GCVC has carved out a solid little place for itself in the Windy City, we would think this bodes well for the future of Chicago nightkind yes?

D: I think it bodes quite well for the Nightkind of our beloved City. For far, far too long, there has really been no representative presence, nothing and no one for the Newly Awakened to find, nobody to help them understand what they’re going through, that they’re not alone or freaks.
In all honesty, at every Meet-Up to-date, there is always somebody who tells me they’re glad they’ve found us, that they’re happy we’re here for them, that we are operating the way we are. I’m always happy to hear feedback like that, y’know? It tells me we’re doing something right.

K: Absolutely, its amazing how fast people are finding us and just how excited they are to be around others like themselves. Bonds are being forged and people are really wanting to come and see what Chicago has to offer.

RVL: Thank you for your time today, and for the update on the GCVC, we’ll keep in touch and let’s look for bigger and better things heading into 2019, yes?

D: It’s always a pleasure. And thanks to RVL for giving us this opportunity to let the Community know more about the GCVC.

K: Thank you so much for taking the time to talk with us. We are excited to let you know where things go in the future.

*********

Pretty much everyone active in the modern culture in this country will be aware that, historically, Chicago has been rather “quiet” when it comes to an active enclave of modern living Vampires… not anymore.

This dynamic duo, full of energy, enthusiasm and ideas are drawing Chicagoland’s Nightkind together in an unprecedented way, they’ve started small, at grass roots, at “street” level if you will and it’s coming together. Interest has been high in this venture and now, with the live meet ups happening on a regular basis the nights, in Chicagoland, are seeing the ripples and shimmers in the darkness and shadows.

Chicagoland should be proud of these two pioneers, and Chicago Nightkind should get behind their new champions.

It’s going to be very exciting watching this initiative grow.

Copyright Greater Chicagoland Vampire Coalition & RVL (unless otherwise noted) 2018

NB: Where used, quoted portions of other works are reproduced by permission, or under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976, wherein allowance is made for “fair use” for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.

This article may be linked to but may not be copied or reproduced, nor redistributed in any manner, including electronic without the express permission of the copyright owners.

The views and opinions presented in this article are the opinions of the author and/or contributors and do not necessarily represent the views and opinions of The Owner/s of RVL International, their officers, assigns or agents. RVL International and its officers do not personally, individually, or jointly necessarily recommend or condone any of the activities or practices represented.

For further information please see the RVL International Website Disclaimer

 

So, you want to mentor the newly awakened?

Img. Source – Fotolia

researched, written and presented

by

Tim

In 2003 the renowned Lady CG, of Darkened Mirror, wrote an article entitled, Putting your vampyric life together – or – how to be a whole, happy, well-adjusted vampyre, and the opening to this article was priceless…

“So you’ve discovered you’re a vampyre, and right now it feels like it sucks to be you. Every older vampyre like myself, still remembers what it felt like to be the “newly awakened”, and you’re right… it can suck. You’re hungry, you’re depressed, you want to rebel against your parents and the world in general. (And it’s not a feeling restricted ONLY to youth… we older folks just rebel against different things, since our parents shouldn’t be the problem once we get out on our own). You don’t fit in with most circles of normal peers, light hurts your eyes, people say you’re weird…. You feel like a complete outcast, or maybe you just feel like you don’t fit in anywhere…. Life hurts. A lot, and frequently.

I’m here to tell you that it doesn’t have to be like that. I’m here to tell you… it gets better.”
~ Lady CG

Who is there that can help you with this?

We all have, or have had at some point in our lives, teachers. The people who guide and form our thinking and our perceptions about the world we inhabit and where we fit into it. These teachers started with our parents, then, perhaps, our siblings, our friends at school and in the workplace and then, for some of us, those who discover their true nature as being a modern living Vampire, Therian or Otherkin and that is the point where the “Mentor”, in our particular context, comes in.

A lot of people in the culture will tell, “Oh yes, I’ve been a real living Vampire for X number of years, I can teach you…!” – Is this actually true?

There are indeed many people in our midst who have mentored a newcomer, a newly awakened youngster, many have done so a number of times and so forth but how do you become a mentor? Is it years of experience as that which you are teaching about? Is there some ‘Hogwarts’ type school to go to and qualify in “Mentorship”? Can you take an online course and become a mentor? What is it that makes a “mentor” successful, or unsuccessful?

Img. Source: ULoop

As in any teaching relationship the teacher, or mentor, must first identify what it is the student is seeking. This, in and of itself, can be a complicated and delicate process. I have had the honour to be a mentor to three persons in my life since awakening. One discovered they were not “kin” at all but were an energy worker. One decided that they were not cut out for the online VC, nor even the society of other Vampires and continues to this day, as far as I know, to follow a very happy, secluded and private path. The third turned out to be someone who wanted to be an immortal, undead, ruler of the night – nuff said there.

The point of this is that these facets were discovered within the first three months of the process.

The initial contact between potential student and potential mentor is a delicate balancing act. The newcomer is unsure about themselves, uncertain about the whole “kin” thing, possibly mistrusting if they have been flipped off by others in the culture already, or if they have been ordered to, “go away and read!”

A true mentor is going to take the time to strike up, firstly, an acquaintanceship with the student. Finding common ground, common interests, is always a good thing. Listening to what the potential student has to say, in whatever way and order it comes is, to my mind, an indispensable step in the whole process. The mentor/student relationship is one that must be based in truth, trust and, above all, honesty. It’s no good lying to someone and telling them, “Oh yes, I can sense great power in you… you are most certainly marked with the sign of the Vampire/Wolf/Otherkin etc.” What’s that going to achieve except for confusing the potential student, turning them into a boorish asshat who tromps about the place annoying the fuck out of everyone and telling everyone that you taught them everything they know and are… see… karma, it’ll bite you in the ass so it’s much better to keep it honest and above board from the get go.

Img. Source: theypi.net

To my mind the Mentor needs to have the same things as any teacher/mentor does in real life, and I say this from the point of view of having trained warehouse employees and apprentices in mechanical and industrial workshops. The ‘mentor’ needs to have commitment to ensuring the best outcome for the student. The mentor needs to keep the student’s natural “exuberance” in check – what’s the old saying, “a little knowledge is a dangerous thing” and a mentor needs to teach, by example, proper conduct.

We asked the honoured Lupa Gunnr MacPhee Lykaios of Gotham, “Have you had experience in mentoring newly awakened persons?” and, “”What do you think are the three most important attributes that a Vampyre culture mentor needs to have to positively mentor a newcomer?”

LG: Yes, I have had the pleasure of mentoring, Siring and guiding many newcomers: here in Gotham I mainly focus on newly awakened Fera or wolf. However having been Sired and awakened by a Vampire Lord O MacPhee, I am able to teach those who seek guidance in Vampyric ways

Transparency, genuine intent, selflessness

Without these it’ would be near impossible to truly expect anyone to listen and absorb all that they could learn.

It’s not good enough to say, “Do as I say, not as I do” that simply creates a conflict and confusion within the learning cycle. If you are going to be unruly while mentoring then you must clearly acknowledge that this is a fault of yours and is not the way you wish your student to act.

Kage Adamant-O’Mallie Asotus offered the opinion that;

“Integrity, inspiration and communication…
Mentoring much like Siring, is a two way street and cannot be achieved without; honesty, motivation and an open line of communication.”

While Prince-Lord Shaolin Asura MacPhee opined that a good mentor needs to, “[Be] Patient, [Have] knowledge and willing not only to hear but LISTEN.”

All most excellent points and observations and yet there are so many that profess, or have professed to be “Sire”, “Siress” or “Mentor” that have led their charges to chaos and confusion that it seems there are those who would rather go into the deal with their own ego in mind rather than the knowledge of what’s best for the newly awakened.

We contacted Magistra Xia, of the Ordo Omnia, who offered the following response,

“Three most important attributes willingness to learn and apply techniques , open mind and putting ego aside , determination to try , try again .

My mentors I would say did a disservice all except one. I think in today’s day and age mentors are offering more support to their students. The old format was like a mother bird tossing the Young out of the nest and seeing if they could fly. The old format I think served its purpose but at the same time probably lost some students along the way who could have offered more in return if they were eased into some of the practices over time.

As far as what I required I wasn’t taught to vet my superiors. My arts training sort of contributed to my mentality of trusting those who were teaching me. Again I would hope that the students of today approach their mentors with deepened respect but a solid mind-set to leave if something was awry or wrong.”

Magstra Xia
of the Ordo Omnia



Self Defence for the Student.
Unfortunately this is going to be a very necessary part of the mentoring of any newcomer. The modern Vampire culture is awash with conflict, with argument, with dare I say it “Drama” and the newcomer, in order to be a solid and “respectable” citizen, needs to be able to recognise the what, when and where of avoiding this. In the event that they found themselves caught up in it they need to know how, when and where to fight back. It’s sad but its reality both in the online and offline culture.

How many times did someone slip me that hoary old line, “If you can’t stand the heat get out of the kitchen”, to which my unfailing response used to be to toss in another match or capful of the proverbial gasoline. This is something that is not recommended however, remember the “Do as I say not as I do” adage…

Self-assurance is the main thing that needs to be instilled and built up in the student. With a strong sense of self and a strong sense of the ability and self-determination that every person has within them the student will develop their own methods and ways, which goes without saying and the mentor has the duty of ensuring that this innate ability is channelled in the most beneficial way for the student. Remember, the seeker is not there for your glorification as mentor, you are there for their betterment and benefit.

Copyright Tim/RVL 2018

Grateful acknowledgement goes to;
Lady CG of Darkened Mirror
Lupa Gunnr MacPhee Lykaios, Kage Adamant-O’Mallie Asotus and Prince-Lord Shaolin Asura MacPhee of the Gotham Halo.
Magistra Xia of the Ordo Omnia

NB: Where used, quoted portions of other works are reproduced by permission, or under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976, wherein allowance is made for “fair use” for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.

This article may be linked to but may not be copied or reproduced, nor redistributed in any manner, including electronic without the express permission of the copyright owners.

The views and opinions presented in this article are the opinions of the author and/or contributors and do not necessarily represent the views and opinions of The Owner/s of RVL, their officers, assigns or agents. RVL and its officers do not personally, individually, or jointly necessarily recommend or condone any of the activities or practices represented.

For further information please see the RVL Website Disclaimer