Real Vampires – The hardest thing about being us Pt: 4

Heather Brewer’s ‘Vladimir Tod’ series, High School Bites

Written and Presented by

Tim

In October of 2012 I began writing a series of short papers under the working title “The Hardest Thing About Being Us”. The first part focused on questions of how we interact with the non-Vampire.

The second part, “Real Vampires – The hardest thing about being us” Part 2, turned attention to some of the dynamic of the sub-culture.

With Part 3,  Real Vampires – The hardest thing about being us Pt: 3 We took a look into the topics of“Acceptance”, “Leaders and Followers”, “Protectionism” and “Welcoming and Helping Our Own”

This time it’s…

Real Vampires – One of the hardest things about being us 4

Integrating the “dayside”, the “nightside” and our culture

In part one of this particular series, written in October of 2012, I wrote about how we, the modern vampire culture, interacts with non-Vampires. The second part centred on the prevailing dynamic within the culture and part 3 explored the topics of acceptance, leaders and followers, protectionism and helping our own. One of the things that I haven’t yet addressed, I believe in any editorial or article I have written, is the subject of our innate knowledge, our belief in ourselves and how we deal with the integration of both “dayside” and “nightside” into our “every day”.

Individual Priorities

These are the things that drive everyday effort and activity, things such as paying the bills, keeping a job (no matter how soul destroying and psychologically damaging that job may be) keeping food on the table, keeping a roof over the head, keeping the car running, looking after growing children, dealing with health issues and social media.

Yep, that’s right, I said that at the end because social media, from reports, studies, observations and statistics has taken such a huge and all pervasive place in modern life that it now almost parallels any of the other “priorities”. Is this a real addition, an imagined addition or a forced addition to life?

Let’s see if we can “prioritise” the list, and please bear in mind this is my opinion of how this list should look…

1) Keeping a job. Unfortunately the majority of employers (certainly in the state I live in, have realised this and play on it. Ruling the workplace by fear and paying low wages because they are fully aware that they have people at their mercy.

2) Keeping roof over the head. Without the roof you can’t maintain your food supply, you can’t maintain your health, you can’t get proper rest.

3) Keeping food on the table. If you don’t eat you die… simple enough.

4) Looking after the children/family. Having a family ensures that you MUST assume responsibility as a protector and provider. It’s a duty that comes with having a family.

5) Paying the bills. Heat, Light, Water, the Roof… If you don’t pay you don’t play.

6) Dealing with health issues. If you die you’re no good to anyone, yes?

7) Keeping the car running. It’s good not to have to use public transport, or rely on friends or taxi cabs.

8) Social Media. Following are several analytical tables that demonstrate the current impact (from 2017) of social media on personal communications trends.

But how does this relate to the modern Vampire culture you ask?

In a single group membership that we recently observed we found that of the total membership 42.857% actually participated in the group, on a particular issue, they had chosen to be in. It was also observed that, amongst the participation rate of six randomly selected “unsubs”, the ratio of personal use of social media to group representation using social media ran as follows;

Unsub 1, timeline posts 20, group posts 33

Unsub 2, timeline posts 1, group posts 2

Unsub 3, timeline posts 3, group posts 0

Unsub 4, timeline posts 25, group posts 4

Unsub 5, timeline posts 144, group posts 0

These figures were taken over a five week period from 1 June this year.

Oh, yes, I said SIX didn’t I,

Unsub 6, timeline posts 696 ( +/- 6) group posts 0 (unsub 6 was treated as a special case due to the fact they made a number of posts, 15 to be exact, within the nominated date range at an associated page and only 1 at the Group homepage.)

I would suggest that if something is important to a person they will commit, they will make specific time available to follow up on that commitment, they will actively contribute fresh material, new ideas and propose discussions or other “projects” that could potentially benefit the group… basically it’s that old chestnut that I’m sure we’ve all heard until our ears were bleeding from it, “Are you a team player?”

My question would be, “If you’re not a team player, why be on a team?”

Pic. source:
Trans-Atlantic Business Council

In a great number of groups around the online culture you can find, as part of the mission statement, the words, “for the betterment of the community”, in some form or another. This statement must be regarded in its true context, “for the betterment of the community in my/our opinion”… it is one of the indisputable truisms of the modern culture that no one has yet found “the way” to improve, overall, the culture even though they may find a way to better things for their immediate followers, or group members but even this will only last for a time.

I would suggest that the only person that can better things for themselves is them.

A number of discussions that have taken place lately have revolved around either the latest idea for improving things or for the improvement, in some manner, for small segments of self-interest collectives and, as such, these concepts hold very little for general, wide-spread and overall improvement.

At the heart of every thought, of every imagining and every decision taken by an individual is a knowledge of themselves and what is necessary and the best for them. This also is an indisputable fact and one that can’t be avoided in any group or cultural setting, agendas of one type or another will define in what direction the group leads, what flavour the group is and how deeply personal bias on the part of the Owner/s of the group will go in the running of the group.

So, what is truly “for the betterment…” and what is for “self-betterment”?

 

Pic. source: spreadshirt.co.uk


The sum of the parts…

How do we, as individuals in the “real” world accommodate the dual nature of our existence? How do we integrate and maintain the Vampiric need along with the “paying bills”, “keeping a job” and “managing a family”?

The answers will come from ourselves, they will come from how deeply we are willing to allow the two to integrate, they will come from how deeply we feel “the hunger” and, ultimately, they will come from just how much we are willing to commit to allowing integration to take place.

There has been much said, and written, about the modern Vampire culture. Unfortunately a great deal of it, constantly, negative. Everyone seems to be fully aware of the problems facing the culture but even after more than 30 years there have been no real, lasting and progressive solutions that have stood the test of time. Given the vast array of intelligence, experience and expertise that exists within the culture you would think that something would have come into being but still, even as late as four days ago, descriptions of the situation still read somewhat like this;

“The same old tired “discussions” over and over again, that we’ve all been having, carried over from the message boards 15 years ago?

Same old topics with newer younger faces?

There’s that, and also drama. More drama. Same fucking drama that always constantly circulates and permeates. Same juvenile bullshit about This One calling That One names, or over-reaching their “territory”, or some self-styled “royalty” of some kind issuing “proclamations” which essentially boils down to more name-calling…

We even have, to this day, self-appointed “leaders” telling the “flocks” not to listen to This One, or to not be friends with That One, and all of the “Oh look what they’re saying now” shit, and the “We won’t stand for this” crap.

It’s all fucking garbage.”

Following on from such a conclusion then might we not consider “taking out the garbage”?

Now hold on a minute pardners… I can hear you all saying, “Here it comes…”
I would ask, “Here what comes?”

Are we going to keep telling ourselves there is NO solution? If that’s true then we might as well all give up, go home and become solitaries.
Are we going to tell ourselves, “We welcome anyone within, associated with, or simply interested in…” and thereby promulgate the problems in separating the real modern living Vampires from wanton troublemakers, RPGers and Wannabe/Pretenders that we pretty much all profess to loathe so much?

 

Solutions

So, where do we go?
Back to a corner and sit on our hands? Into deep conference between all interested parties? Into a “Corporate Team Building Retreat”, or perhaps a “Tactical Withdrawal and Regroup” pattern? Into some sort of separationist tribal model?

Many times over the definitions of modern living Vampire have been written, re-written, discussed, re-hashed, deliberated on and then discussed some more and, for all of this over thirty plus years, we still have nothing universal to rely on. Indeed, as one person once remarked to me in a message board I frequented, “Words don’t actually just mean what the dictionary says, they also mean what people understand them to mean.”

“Uh Oh…!”
Pic source: Fistful of Talent

Faced with something like that, we are indeed sunk.

 

A presentation of the best available definitions comes to us from the “Terminology and Lingo” section of Sanguinarius.org [2] where the definitions of “sanguinarian”, “blood-drinker”, “blood fetishist”, “psychic vampire” and “Vampyre Lifestyler” are to be found, among others. Each are directly concerned with defining the term under certain conditions of activity they do not, however, concern themselves with defining motivation.

In considering the motivation behind the integration of “dayside” and “nightside” I would suggest that we could further break down the definitions, regardless of activity or practises. If I was asked to write up a table of Vampire types in the Culture I would create a dual list, one would contain the standard recognised “types by feeding method” i.e. Sang, Psi etc. The second part, or sub-division, of the list would be by “activity type”.

 

ILVamp – Integrated life Vamp – A modern living Vampire to whom their Vampirism is as much a part of them as their ethnicity, their biological condition and their natural psychological processes. A Vampire who does not, and cannot, separate their Vampirism out and in which it is as important a part of life as working, sleeping, eating, paying bills and creates, within them, a strong commitment to incorporating their Vampiric nature into their existence.

TPVamp – Time Permitting Vamp – A modern living Vampire who does not recognise that part of themselves as a priority in their daily existence and activities and will treat the matter as a lower priority than everything else in life even though it may compromise their health and wellbeing.

FVamp – Fetish Vamp, a human living Vampire who actively practices their feeding while regarding said act as an object regarded with awe as being the embodiment or habitation of a potent spirit or as having magical potency or any object, idea, etc., eliciting unquestioning reverence, respect, or devotion.

WSVamp – “When it suits” Vamp – A modern living Vampire, or perhaps not, who will only visit the issue in so far as it suits their personal need for attention, entertainment or gratification.

PVamp – “Pretend” Vamp – One who will pop up, regularly to spread dis-, or mis-, information, dress up and play vamp, join every single Vampire oriented group on social media and “farm” friends lists for contacts to make themselves appear to be a “mover and shaker” but at the end of the day are about as Vampire as my blessed Grandmother was a deep sea exploration diver; Gods rest her beautiful soul.

 

The situation, unfortunately, is not improving in any wide measure and because of that people actually begin to question not only their own commitment but the trust they may have placed in others along the way. People may begin to question whether there is actually a place for them in the modern culture, people may begin to question why they even stay in touch so not having solutions to offer may well be just as damaging to the culture as having solutions that cause arguments and dissent – it’s Devil and the Deep Blue Sea time.

Ultimately, dear reader, at days end the only person that knows who you are for sure is you, you do not know, for sure, who a great majority of the others in the culture are, and ultimately, whether you choose to integrate, or not, be a “team player” or not, is a decision that rests squarely with you.

Copyright T & RVL 2017

 

NB: This article may be linked to but may not be copied or reproduced, nor redistributed in any manner, including electronic without the express permission of the copyright owners.

The views and opinions presented in this article are the opinions of the author and/or contributors and do not necessarily represent the views and opinions of The Owner/s of RVL, their officers, assigns or agents. RVL and its officers do not personally, individually, or jointly necessarily recommend or condone any of the activities or practices represented.

 Where used, quoted portions of other works are reproduced by permission, or under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976, wherein allowance is made for “fair use” for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.

 For further information please see the RVL Website Disclaimer

 

Red Flags

Good morning,
Rounding out our series of three presentations of the week surrounding the 10th anniversary of the tragic death of Sophie Lancaster in 2007 there is one more important message that needs be reiterated, it’s a message that everyone has heard before, it’s a message that many are probably tired of hearing but it IS a message that, judging by some of the messages we still receive at our Facebook page, needs to be repeated.

It is with an extra measure of pride that this presentation is published today since it marks the editorial debut of one of our newest staff members. This “Crossroads” article was written by Lady Ronin Costa, RVL’s Foreign Correspondent in Italy.

~ T ~

 

Lady Ronin Costa, House of the Griffin,

Italian correspondent for Real Vampire Life E-Zine

*How to protect our mundane family from predators and useful info’s on real life vampires to raise awareness against predators that use the fascination of the vampire to lure ingenuous victims for their personal gain.

Hi everyone, I’m writing to you today because I am really worried for the ingenuous people that, maybe in desperate moments or just to follow the romanticized character of the vampire, get fooled by some individuals for personal gain or worse.

Thanks to Hollywood and books, the character of the vampire has been romanticized to a level that many, young and old, now wish to become a vampire. But the reality of things is that there are no such vampires in this world, and even if there were, none of them would connect on internet in search for a prey or to ask money for turning you into one of them.

As part of the real vampire community I want to raise awareness for our mundane family to protect themselves, by being well informed on what a real vampire is and what is not.

All of us in the community, at least once, have been asked from a mundane to be turned into a vampire. And I think I speak in the name of us all, we are worried that one day, you or your friends, will find someone that will abuse this innocence and hurt you. Or I don’t even know what could happen.

Img. source: scoop.it

 

We, real life vampires, are just human beings like you and anybody else on this planet. The sun doesn’t turn us to ashes even tho it hurts us more than it might hurt you, we don’t sleep in coffins, we do not live forever even tho sometimes we look much younger than our actual age, we do not promise eternal life, garlic doesn’t hurt or kill us, our senses are heightened but we are not super humans going around looking for people to bite on the neck and sweep you away from reality and take you on a vampire adventure. We are also not immune to diseases so we cannot cure you through a magical bite on the neck or how many call it, a vampire embrace.

That is Hollywood brainwashing.

 

We are real people with a normal life, we just need a way different from the normal human being to sustain our income of energy for our physical, emotional, and mental health. We are not ageless and we too die.

Many people do not realize this, especially young people, and this has become a way to target our mundane family for predators, that will promise you the moon and sun only for personal gain.

So here I am, writing to you, trying to make you understand that like for any other thing (in and outside internet), you should be smart and informed, for this topic informed by us, so you do not fall for the lure of a predator that will come to you saying that he will turn you into a vampire, either for money or sexual favors. There are here on the website many useful information free to read to know more about us, the vampire community, our theories, our way of living and so on and I encourage you to read the other articles written on this website and to do a nice research on us and our family of Otherkin, Therians, etc.…

Img. source: The Cyber Safety Guru

First thing first. Let’s begin. There is no turning.

We are born this way, and even ourselves do not know how we are what we are, we only went through a process that we call “AWAKENING” that made us realise what we are and that we are able to take energies, energies that the human body usually replenishes by itself when instead for us we have to kinda force this process by taking energies from other sources, either by blood or directly from prana, and we realized that we have always been this way.

I am here to be a sort of mentor at the moment, and I’m sorry that this article might pop your bubble on the existence of vampires like the ones you see on screen, it is not my intention to ruin people’s dreams, but only to show the reality of the vampire community, cause I’m really worried for everyone’s wellbeing, and I’m aware that in our community under false pretenses sometimes lurks a predator ready to hurt the uninformed that have the dream of becoming a vampire as portrayed by Hollywood. Beautiful, Immortal, Rich, Mysterious.

So here we come to the red flags. Luckily most of the people that claim to be like the fictional vampire, do so as a roleplay, we even have vampire lifestylers that will have their own background story to represent their fictional character, but they will straight out tell you that it’s all because of the love they have in the regards of the vampire figure. And you will find them in roleplaying based groups of forums. Unluckily there is also the chance to find a real predator.

Img. source: The Age.com.au

How to protect yourselves from those predators.

 AGE: First of all as I mentioned above we are not immortal and ageless.

So if someone is telling you that he is 500 years old and that for some reason he wants to turn you into a vampire to give you eternal youth. !!!RED FLAG!!! Ask if he is roleplaying of if he is serious, in the first case you might have found someone to play in chat, in the second case where he tries to make you believe he really is a vampire, first thing to do is BLOCK OR IGNORE, second step is up to you, to alert someone in the vampire community about it, maybe through this website or its Facebook page.

IMMUNE TO ALL DISEASES: If this individual promises you, by turning you into a vampire, to get rid of a disease you might have, maybe in exchange of money or sexual favors. !!!RED FLAG!!! As I said above and I will repeat it many times, we real vampires are just different human beings, we are subjected to illnesses, and we do not have the capacity to make any disease disappear. So BLOCK OR IGNORE this kind of individuals and still up to you, report the fact to the real vampire community so we have a chance to protect other people by reporting this person and make it known all around the world if necessary that this individual could be dangerous.

MYSTERIOUS ORIGINS OR LONG VAMPIRE LINEAGE: We real vampires still have very little evidence on our condition, most of us think it’s a genetic thing or even a spiritual thing, people who talk of being a vampire born in a vampire family and to possess pure vampire blood lineage, or to come from a hidden vampire den situated nowhere on the maps, do not engage with them. It’s a !!!RED FLAG!!!

 TURNING THROUGH A BITE ON THE NECK OR BY DRINKING THEIR BLOOD OR SOME OTHER VAMPIRE RITUAL: We, real life vampires, are born this way, there is no way of turning cause we are humans too. Just different from many others with characteristic similar to the fictional vampire. And when we feed from our donors we do not do it through biting. There are safe procedures to protect both the donor and the real vampire from infections or worse illnesses that can be passed through blood. So this too it’s a !!!RED FLAG!!!

BLOCK OR IGNORE this individual and up to you report it to the vampire community for the safety of many others that could fall into the hands of this potential predator.

MAGICAL OR SUPERHERO POWERS: Most of us in the vampire community present a various series of characteristics, from heightened senses (one or more senses), to empathy, clairvoyance, scrying, energy related abilities, light forms of telepathy, etc… We are more sensitive to energies than others, and therefore we do have some sort of gift, or even if we have nothing of the things I mentioned above. We surely cannot fly or have superhero powers, but being in close contact with the energies that envelope all of us and the world we can become energy workers like anyone else that for example see auras and so forth. They are all abilities that can also be learned through practice and meditation, taking reiki classes or similar things. So, if anyone promises you that they will give you insane powers if you decide to meet them. !!!RED FLAG!!! Do not let them fool you. BLOCK OR IGNORE and up to you, report to us in the vampire community.

 

These predators, will pretty much say anything to get into your graces, so that one day you will be convinced to meet them. Some will even try to make you romantically involved with them, or to “help” you by turning you for whatever reason. BE SMART.

SHIFTING INTO ANIMALS: More often than we know there are people that in exchange for money or sexual favors will try to lure you into believing that they are a vampire and that they can do everything a fictional vampire can do, even shifting into a bat or another animal. Be smart and understand that a physical shift of this proportions it’s IMPOSSIBLE.

Sometimes, we, real life vampires, talk about spiritual shifts, BUT REMEMBER; IT’S A TOTALLY DIFFERENT THING. We, just as much as you, have many different bodies, if you study about chakras and auras you can learn about them too, and when we usually talk about shifting it’s a topic only on our astral bodies that have a much higher frequency of our material body. So if you find someone that tells you that he/she transformed into an actual bat or wolf etc., do not believe them, because it’s another !!!RED FLAG!!!

TURNING TO ASHES UNDER THE SUN OR GOING OUT ONLY AT NIGHT, KILLING OF ANIMALS AND DRINKING BLOOD FROM THEM TO NOT JUMP ON PEOPLE NECKS, SUPER FAST RUNNING IN THE WOODS, BEING AFRAID OF HUNTERS STACKING THEM INTO THE HEART THEREFORE ASKING YOU TO INVITE THEM INTO YOUR HOME, TRYING TO TALK LIKE A GENTLEMAN FROM THE PAST AND MANY MORE…

 

We, real life vampires, are more sensitive to the sun light, it can cause discomfort to the eyes migraines, and burns more on our skin than a normal human being but this doesn’t kill us, turning us to ashes. We, do not kill animals to sustain our need for blood and surely we do not drink blood from a dead animal because we fear to jump on the first person that passes and bite their neck. It goes against our morals cause we love animals and it’s also both illegal and unsanitary. We don’t have the Flash’s power to run at light speed for the same reason nobody can. We might be afraid of gullible people that think we are vampires like the ones you see in movies, but certainly we will not ask a random stranger to invite us into their home to escape such hunters. Some of us likes to talk like a gentleman yes but when it’s very extreme it’s surely not a real life vampire you are talking with. So here we go again !!!RED FLAGS!!!! BLOCK IGNORE AND REPORT!!!

Img. source: News.com.au

 

Understanding this issue is very important. There are predators in any kind of community. These are only a few of the many RED FLAGS that you have to be aware of. Do not believe in those people, and especially do not meet those people in person. It’s potentially dangerous and the vampire community truly cares about you and your safety. No real life vampire will try to do harm to you with the promise of turning you, on the contrary, a real life vampire will always tell you how things really are and will give you advice on how to avoid predators.

 

SO THE FEW RULES ARE_

1- BE SMART AND INFORMED ABOUT US IN THE REAL VAMPIRE COMMUNITY

2- BE AWARE THAT THERE ARE PREDATORS ABUSING THE NAME “VAMPIRE” FOR PERSONAL GAIN AND THAT IT COULD BE FOLLOWED BY CRIMINAL BEHAVIOURS

3- IF YOU THINK YOU ARE IN CONTACT WITH A POSSIBLE PREDATOR AND NOT A ROLEPLAYER THAT JUST WANTS TO ROLEPLAY LIKE VAMPIRE THE MASQUERADE, BLOCK OR IGNORE AND *OPTIONAL- REPORT FOR THE SAFETY OF OTHER PEOPLE THAT COULD FALL INTO THE HANDS OF THIS POTENTIAL PREDATOR

4- NEVER EVER MEET IN PERSON WITH THE POTENTIAL PREDATOR. LIKE FOR EVERYTHING ONLINE, EVEN IF YOU THINK THERE’S A GOOD PERSON ON THE OTHER SIDE OF THE COMPUTER.

5- “IF” YOU EVER DECIDE TO MEET PEOPLE THAT YOU MET ON THE INTERNET, MAKE THE MEETING IN A PUBLIC PLACE, BRING A FRIEND OR TWO WITH YOU AND TELL YOUR FAMILY OR SOME TRUSTED FRIENDS WHERE YOU ARE, KEEP YOUR PHONE ON YOU AND IF YOU CHANGE LOCATION GIVE THE NEW LOCATION TO YOUR FRIENDS OR FAMILY.

 

I really hope I covered everything that needed to be covered with this article. Stay Safe and Be Smart.

 Yours,

Lady Griffin.

Foreign correspondent, Italy, for RVL E-Zine.

Img. credit & Copyright –
House of the Griffin, Italy

 

Copyright House of the Griffin & RVL 2017 except where noted.

NB: This article may be linked to but may not be copied or reproduced, nor redistributed in any manner, including electronic without the express permission of the copyright owners.

The views and opinions presented in this article are the opinions of the author and/or contributors and do not necessarily represent the views and opinions of The Owner/s of RVL, their officers, assigns or agents. RVL and its officers do not personally, individually, or jointly necessarily recommend or condone any of the activities or practices represented.

Where used, quoted portions of other works are reproduced by permission, or under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976, wherein allowance is made for “fair use” for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.

For further information please see the RVL Website Disclaimer

 

10 Years – Stand up, Stand out, BE COUNTED…

Photo credit: ITV Television & The Sun Newspaper, U.K.

Presented by

Tim

People say to me, “You’re not from around here, are you?”, usually followed by something along the lines of, “can tell by your clothes and your hair…”

I’ve always been… somewhat different, different in dress, different in style, different in outlook and perception – it came to me at a very early age that it was the ONLY way to be. Because of that certain things were, and probably are, bound to happen – and certain things will get to me.

A Definition of Alternative Subculture…

“Alternative Subculture means a discernible group that is characterized by a strong sense of collective identity and a set of group-specific values and tastes that typically centre on distinctive style/clothing, make- up, body art and music preferences.

Those involved usually stand out in the sense their distinctiveness is discernible both to fellow participants and to those outside the group. Groups that typically place themselves under the umbrella of “alternative” include Goths, emos, punks, metalllers and some variants of hippie and dance culture (although this list is not exhaustive).”

Sylvia Lancaster OBE, Professor Jon Garland & Dr Paul Hodkinson. March 2013

In 2007 Sophie Lancaster and her boyfriend, Robert Maltby, were attacked by a group of young men while walking through Stubbylee Park in Bacup, Rossendale, Lancashire in England. As a result of head injuries Sophie sustained in the attack, she lapsed into a coma from which she never awoke. She died of her injuries thirteen days later. Rob, also severely beaten, lapsed into a coma but he was fortunate in that he regained consciousness. The attackers set upon Robe initially but then turned their attention on Sophie when she tried to intervene and help her boyfriend.[1]

Img. source:
http://gothic.life/

I am quite sure that many of us, moving in the circles we have, and do, can recount tales of innocents being brutalised for simply ‘being different’ – I can.

It is this sort of heinous and barbaric behaviour that we must ALWAYS seek to thwart, to fight and to eliminate.

Sunday the 18th (U.K. Time) was the 10th anniversary of this tragedy, we should all take pause and reaffirm our resolve to stand up, stand out and be counted in memory of Sophie, Rob and all the others who have been victimised for being different.

Sylvia Lancaster O.B.E at ‘Download 2012’ with Jake and Jinxx from Black Veil Brides

BBC U.K. – “Murdered for being different”

The Sophie Lancaster Foundation

Support The Foundation

Like I said, some things REALLY get me…!

Copyright TB & RVL 2017 except where noted.

Additional references:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Murder_of_Sophie_Lancaster

NB: This article may be linked to but may not be copied or reproduced, nor redistributed in any manner, including electronic without the express permission of the copyright owners.

The views and opinions presented in this article are the opinions of the author and/or contributors and do not necessarily represent the views and opinions of The Owner/s of RVL, their officers, assigns or agents. RVL and its officers do not personally, individually, or jointly necessarily recommend or condone any of the activities or practices represented.

Where used, quoted portions of other works are reproduced by permission, or under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976, wherein allowance is made for “fair use” for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.

For further information please see the RVL Website Disclaimer