All in the family?

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Carroll O’Connor and Jean Stapleton in “All in the Family”,
Tandem Productions, 1971 – 1979.

Researched, Written, Edited and Presented by
Tim & Lady M.

Foreword:

 

There are many words that are brought into play every day that are used to describe a variety of circumstances and situations and nowhere, it may be said, is this more prevalent than in our own Modern Living Vampire Culture. Whether rightly or wrongly is beside the point and this editorial is NOT meant to be an indictment of the use of any word so employed. This is a discussion piece, it is a reflection piece and, hopefully, will prompt many to take a serious look at a commonly used term to decide whether or not it is appropriate in certain instances and the possible impact of the use of such a term.

——————————————————————–

A very common term used throughout the modern Vampire culture is ‘Family’, an innocuous enough word that occurs throughout everyday life also but what does it mean, within our specific context? Having been told, some years back now, that, “Words don’t mean what they mean in the dictionary, they mean what people think they mean…” we have been asking around a bit to find out exactly what the concept is applied to in our culture.

There have been times that I know of when people have been welcomed, lauded and embraced as “Family” but this suddenly seems to turn sour for a number of reasons and all of a sudden they are out of ‘the family’. I have seen, and heard of, people starting ‘families’ and populating said ‘families’ with unknown (to them) members… how does this equate with the normal concept of a ‘family’ unit?

 

What are the bonds that join people who have never physically met and make them decide to call themselves a family?

What is the cost when someone who is devoted to a ‘family’ they are in, and are committed to, is told, “You will do this now or you are NOT family…!” Does this have the same impact as real life family disputes? Is it somehow worse because you know that in real life families things will blow over?

There are so many questions revolving around the concept of family in the modern Vampire culture that it might almost seem that the word ‘Family’ has become as disposable, and meaningless, as many others we employ today.

With all of this “muddy water” clearly in view then, let’s consider the meaning of the term “family” in relation to the modern Vampire culture.

img. source: http://id.fanpop.com

Whichever way we choose to turn we have to accept that the word, “family”, does have a definition and an origin, those are…

Family Noun (UK)

[ C or U + sing/pl verb ] a group of people who are related to each other

Noun (US)

[ C/U ] a social group of parents, children, and sometimes grandparents, uncles, aunts, and others who are related.

Origin of family

1350–1400; Middle English familie < Latin familia a household, the slaves of a household, equivalent to famul(us) servant, slave + -ia -y3

A further defined set of explanations is given at Dictionary.com

Family [fam-uh-lee, fam-lee] noun, plural fam·i·lies.

  1. a basic social unit consisting of parents and their children, considered as a group, whether dwelling together or not:
  2. a social unit consisting of one or more adults together with the children they care for:
  3. any group of persons closely related by blood, as parents, children, uncles, aunts, and cousins:
  4. all those persons considered as descendants of a common progenitor.
  5. a group of persons who form a household under one head, including parents, children, and servants.
  6. a group of related things or people:
  7. a group of people who are generally not blood relations but who share common attitudes, interests, or goals and, frequently, live together:
  8. a group of products or product models made by the same manufacturer or producer.

 

Which also notes that;

[Slang.] A unit of the Mafia or Cosa Nostra operating in one area under a local leader.

The popular, crowd sourced Urban Dictionary carries the following definition;

family

A group of people, usually of the same blood (but do not have to be), who genuinely love, trust, care about, and look out for each other. Not to be mistaken with relatives sharing the same household who hate eachother. REAL family is a bondage that cannot be broken by any means.

img. source: renrad-news.de

 

Quite an array of things we can pick from should we choose, so, has the term been simply ‘borrowed’ or has it been ‘misappropriated’?

Does the use of the word “family” actually meet the criteria of meanings associated with the word? We all know there are many, many names for a “cohesive” unit in the VC, “Group”, “Coven”, “House”, “Order”, and “Temple” and so on and it would appear that the term “family” is generally found in usage within one or another of these units.

The fact is that within said groups/houses or whatever the official name is, there are generally found to be a number of people who have never actually physically met each other… this would seem to deny the definition wherein it is held that a family is a basic social unit consisting of parents and their children, considered as a group, whether dwelling together or not, a social unit consisting of one or more adults together with the children they care for, any group of persons closely related by blood, as parents, children, uncles, aunts, and cousins, all those persons considered as descendants of a common progenitor, a group of persons who form a household under one head, including parents, children, and servants, a group of related things or people.

Perhaps the only definitive idea we can apply is “a group of people who are generally not blood relations but who share common attitudes, interests, or goals and, frequently, live together.”  I believe the Manson Family fitted this profile…!

To gauge the understanding of the term in relation to the Culture we made contact with a number of people, whom we have had the pleasure of working with before, and put the following question to them;

“In relation to “groups” within the modern Vampire culture what do you understand the term ‘Family’ to mean?”

The Regent of The Vampire Court of Dallas, Mike Burgess, suggests that;
Family is and will seem to always be one of the most common ways to describe the internal dynamic within multiple types and forms of organizations within the VC as a whole… and exists as an important part of the public/private dichotomy that exists in any community organization…a public face and a private face visible only to those inside of the group.

Personally, “family” in this sense perfectly describes what we do internally every day within the VCD…the members in our organization in particular behave and are treated as siblings – we are to lift you up the hard times, celebrate the good times, argue, make-up, and help you grow as a person if needed…this goes for even leadership – since we hold (me included) since each member’s voice with equal weight. Publically, we have our titles and the presentation to the world…while internally, this family atmosphere has been very much the central reason for our success.

It is obvious that the VCD is an enviable model, one to be emulated and one that would certainly appear to fulfil the context specific definition of a VC “family”.

 

Queen Tania Tranquilitatis of The Court of The Call of Avalon in the U.K. has a somewhat more direct opinion on the matter, she writes;

“Family to me is standing by them no matter what…

As with you and Mar and all the deception and hurt you both unfairly received from ******.

It’s standing up for the truth.

Standing by those unfairly accused by others.

Doing whatever you can to support them in any way you can.

Hugs and blessings to you both”

 

Family, and the depth of connection between the members of a family have been known to be of the most intense and intuitive kind. Siblings knowing when the other is hurt, family members exhibiting extreme feats of courage and strength when a loved one is threatened. Perfect family traits under extreme conditions, however, we must make ourselves aware of the “norm” also. As the following excerpt, at Psychology Today, reads;

“The Perfect Family

The idea of a perfect family fascinates us, even if at some level we know there’s no such thing. But by imagining that there are those who seem to have everything right, we are setting ourselves up for perpetual disappointment. Especially if we strive to mimic them.”

Do we go looking for the “perfect family” in the cyber realm? Do we imagine that a sense of being “included” in such a family is going to cure us? Prepare us? That they are going to stand by and support us? Fight for us? Do we imagine that we are going to find something that we have been missing out on in real life?

This is where it can become both tricky and dangerous. When we open up and expose ourselves to the vagaries of people we have never met and whom we know nothing of, except what they choose to portray. When we choose to put our faith in people without knowing one thing about their personal histories or agenda, surely we are opening ourselves up for the biggest kick in the balls since David Hirst hit the crossbar at 114 mph during a football match against Arsenal in 1996.

The web resource Goodtherapy.org notes;
Rejection can also result from life events not involving relationships, such as being turned down for a desired position. While any rejection can be painful, some instances of rejection may be more affecting than others. Because most humans desire social contact, and many people crave acceptance from society, being rejected can incite negative feelings and emotions.

The feeling of rejection is believed to have developed as an evolutionary tool to alert early humans who were at risk of being ostracized from the tribe they belonged to. A painful rejection from others in the tribe was likely to encourage an individual to modify any problematic behavior in order to avoid further rejection, or ostracism, from the tribe. Those who were able to avoid further rejection were more likely to survive, while those who did not find rejection to be particularly painful may not have corrected the offending behavior, making them less likely to survive. Humans have therefore evolved to experience rejection as painful.”

Could such rejection, from what is supposed to be a supportive and like-minded society, be more severe and damaging than from a real-life society where it is commonly held that no one gives a damn about anyone else?

 

Gordon Smith, Convener of the research group CLAVIS, member of HotD and Staff member at RVL, gives us his words in response to the question;
For me, Family are the people who inspire us to be the best versions of ourselves while sticking around even when we’re at our worst. Specifically within the context of Vampire culture, Family reminds us that Awakening is an ongoing process and helps keep us grounded in who we are while joining us in our explorations of who we are becoming.”

 

Is the simple fact that we share a common belief, i.e. we are modern Vampires, enough to form the bonds necessary to be considered “family” in any true and definable sense of the word or is it more of an identification within the identification that brings this about? We know that the dynamic in a real family, i.e. the “social group of parents, children, and sometimes grandparents, uncles, aunts, and others who are related”, is a complicated process that develops over a number of years, even generations, so how can we expect the same bonds to develop over any less? Is it a fact that the “bonds” that are spoken of in relation to a “a group of people who are generally not blood relations but who share common attitudes, interests, or goals and, frequently, live together”, are sufficient to satisfy using the common term?

Lord Stefan Resurrectus, Patriarch of Clan Resurrectus and convener of the The first annual Elder and Leadership Conference and Summit 2019, honoured us with a brief treatise on the matter of “Family” (which can be read in the full form HERE) and one of the quotes that particularly stood out from that reads;

The VC/OVC is not so far removed from the technical definitions.  The problems are seeing each other as brethren and identifying those that are a problem/or a danger to the community as a whole.  Most of the organizations that I have dealt with, especially the more long-standing and successful, have an intrinsic sense of family regardless of their structure

He goes on to say that;

Family:

  • is there, no matter what.
  • Will defend you to the end, even if they disagree with you
  • Will tell you the truth, no matter how much it hurts
  • Will be beside you through good and bad
  • Will not betray the family no matter what

Title: “Sword Salute”
img. source: Pinterest

 

Are the ideals that Lord Stefan speaks of common to the real life family? Can anyone recall unpleasant difficulties and problems within real life families? How many can recall their biological family maintaining these strictures? How do these things compare with the, dare we say, “Pseudo-families” that exist within our culture? Is it a case of, as I suggested with the quote from Psychology Today, “…by imagining that there are those who seem to have everything right, we are setting ourselves up for perpetual disappointment.

In the end analysis, how many people have been disappointed, let down or rejected by our pseudo-families? What are the lasting effects of such rejection? Does anyone, except the victim, know or care?

In another article, entitled “Family Dynamics and Distress”, presented at Psychology Today it is noted that;
There exists at times in families, one who will do all possible to preserve the structure, no matter how dysfunctional it may be. This person often utilizes an authoritarian stance and expects their children to respect them solely for the sake of their presumed authority. Their objective is control,

Our Assistant Editor, Research Director, my wife, Lady M, writes on family;

“Family comes together in love and respect to nurture and be a part of your life through good and bad.  How does that sound?  I have people on my friend’s list on Facebook that have been there since I first opened my account, these few I consider family as for each move that I made, each mistake that I made, every time I shut down … they came looking for me to see if I was alright… if that makes a person family than it works for me. 

I have a problem with the use of the word family in the context of Groups within the VC … most of these groups are strictly “blue screen” groups that never have any face to face interaction.  People come and people go in and out of these Groups with, I believe, no more family bond than a drop of water in the ocean.  Just because there is one commonality involved with bringing people together, in my mind, does not a family make.   How can I call someone my family based on a timeline page, usually with no photo and sketchy information? 

There are other Groups within the VC that recruit you for who you are or who you know and how much information you can bring into that Group … no family vibe there, yet they will tell you all of the words you want to hear, how family is so important and that you will always have family within that social structure… until you misstep and are booted out…!  What family does that to you???

I have always, with the exception in my first paragraph, believed family to be people that you trust, honor, respect and love and have actually sat down and shared a meal with.  I also believe that family sees the best and the worst of you but they are still around with physical support, encouraging words or just a hug.”

img. source: theodysseyonline.com

In closing;

I suppose that we can’t be too sensitive can we, I mean, what’s in a word right? It’s a well-known fact that our modern culture is built on “borrowed” words, “made up” words, borderline plagiarism and fictitious imaginings. There was nothing official developed, or available at the beginning so whatever was handy came to the fore. Any attempts to quantify, define or widely explain since then have been virtual battlegrounds that have never gained what we might call consensus. The question we MUST ask ourselves, by loosely using the word family, especially where we know that there ARE vulnerable people, are we actually harming people? Are we setting people up for distress and putting them at risk of psychological harm by having them equate the pseudo-family of the VC context with the emotional connections generally experienced in real life family circumstances?

Even though attempt after attempt has been made we have been unable, collectively, to come to a universal, or even wide-ranging definition of what we modern… erm, well, whatever we are, are. Should we simply continue to muddle and mutate words to suit ourselves or should we be looking toward developing a more proper set of definitions, and terms, for use within the culture? In much the same way as we can’t truly use the word Vampire to describe those of us whom identify as such since we are not, quote, Vampire; a preternatural being, commonly believed to be a reanimated corpse, that is said to suck the blood of sleeping persons at night.”

Can we, in good conscience, use the word family with impunity and without expecting damaging ramifications at times?

 

Copyright RVL 2018 (except where noted)

NB: Where used, quoted portions of other works are reproduced by permission, or under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976, wherein allowance is made for “fair use” for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.

This article may be linked to but may not be copied or reproduced, nor redistributed in any manner, including electronic without the express permission of the copyright owners.

The views and opinions presented in this article are the opinions of the author and/or contributors and do not necessarily represent the views and opinions of The Owner/s of RVL, their officers, assigns or agents. RVL and its officers do not personally, individually, or jointly necessarily recommend or condone any of the activities or practices represented.

For further information please see the RVL Website Disclaimer

 

Planning, Pondering, Perpetuating…

Planned, Pondered and Perpetuated with some forethought by
Tim

Well, slap me sideways and call me a saloon door…!!!

What a time we’re having hereabouts… heat indexes still boiling the thermometers, pollen counts in the millions of parts per million, I think the sun is actually orbiting closer to Illinois than to Mercury at the moment…!!! Seriously, I saw a lady walking her pet Dachsund the other day and I swear the little woofer had griddle marks on him…!!!

Hey, “What’s the weather like on your planet?”

SPOILER ALERT

Yeah, oh, speaking of questions, has anybody been playing with those funny little, “Add an answer” things on Facebook? Really, it can be quite amusing… just take a serious question and think up a completely smartarse answer…

Example, I came across the question the other night, “How do like your spaghetti?”… oh, what an opening…

 

Img. source: “The Good, the Bad and the Ugly”
Produzioni Europee Associate (PEA) (Produzioni Europee Associati – Rome)
Arturo González Producciones Cinematográficas (co-production) and
Constantin Film 1967

Okayyyyyyy… let’s see what my beautiful assistant has for me this time around… some news, some news, some things, some… *shuffle, shuffle, shuff…*

Ah Hah

 

Img. source: Court of Lazarus

The 198th Court of Lazarus; A Metropolitan Vampire Society

Sunday, July 15 at 9 PM – to Jul 16 at 12 AM EDT

 

The Court of Lazarus

94 W Houston St, New York, New York 10012

With ShaIn Ilisha, Monica Ann Pedone, Angelica Valkyrie, Patrick DeLaney, Valerie Ferrante, Naamah Aeternus, Elena Innocence, Melissa Rensky, Victor A. Noirlocke and Valerus Lideim.

~ And ~

Img. source: Iron Garden

“Calling All Nightkind – Therians, Lycans, Canis Lupus, Otherkin, Witches, Pagans, Vampires and All Beautiful Children of the Night”

Join us Friday, July 27th – 9PM Sharp!

Events include;

KEY NOTE SPEAKER: Lupa Gunnr MacPhee Lykaios – Founder of Tribe Lykaios presenting on: Wolves Among us

CONCLAVE: The Berserker Mindset w/Citizen Wolfgang Krystman aka Herr Wulfsunus Elder of House of the Dreaming

ART EXHIBITION by: Don Lee Ferguson

CEREMONY: Full Moon Transformation Blessing by Jennifer Bobbe

PLUS – Goth Lounge in the Crypt by QXT’s DJ Pete DeFillipo

and much more… don’t miss out…

Img source: Facebook someplace

Bwaaaaaaaaaaaaahahahahahahahahaha… I am so gonna use that next time…

Know what? I’ve been thinking, just recently, about “constancy” “- the quality of staying the same, not getting less or more”[1] and “inconstancy” “- not staying the same, especially in emotion, behaviour, or choice of sexual partner”[2]

Yeah, yeah, okay…enough with the sex jokes already… seriously now…

Having spent almost 18 years online, in this wonderful little alternative reality we have called the VC, I have seen an amazing amount of changes… not so much wholesale, widespread, cultural changes but smaller, somewhat radical and fleeting changes. One of the most prevalent types of change that I recall is level of inconstancy of a good many folk. It seems that from initial identification as one form of “kin”, for wont of a better term, there is a decided shift that comes along at not too infrequent intervals where people will re-imagine, reinvent or re-define themselves and I have to ask myself why.

Is it because they have an epiphany? A blinding revelation accompanied by the choral strains of an assemblage of winged daemons telling them that they’re not what they thought they were?

Is it because, eventually, people get bored with their “persona”, get bored with waning visibility, get bored with having to think themselves restricted in topics of discussion (if they care about that sort of thing of course) Is it a need to become “visible” again, to become “noticed”, to become part of the “in crowd” again?

Is that why we seem to be constantly discovering new types of Vampires in our midst? Is it simple inconstancy that afflicts?

Yeah, food for thought I thought…

Img. source: Sacramento Magazine

EVERYBODY GET YOUR CALENDARS AND CRAYONS OUT NOW…!!!

From Lady Shannon McCabe all the way out on the western side of the continent

BIG ANNOUNCEMENT – The VAMPS will be back for our 10 year Anniversary! #VAMPS #ShannonMcCabesVampireBall #Halloween #Sacramento

Check in at Vampire Ball.net and keep up with the latest news for this years ball in Sacramento

 

As the lady relates; “I am feeling rather nostalgic today as I think back on the last 10 years… Enjoy some of our beautiful VAMPS from years past… If you haven’t liked the Vampire Ball yet, you should, we have some really exciting things coming up… Peace, love and vampires.
Shannon”

 

http://www.VampireBall.net (Tickets on sale now for 10/27)

#Sacramento #VAMPS #Halloween #VampireBall

No doubt about it, they have big balls in Sacramento


Okay, digging down into the “medicine bag” again…. annnnnnd….

Ahhh, yes, Lady Raven’s recent message…

Img. source: Vampires Masquerade Ball PDX

A location change for the ball is in the offing for this year. For details on the event and the changes check in at;

Vampire’s Masquerade Ball PDX

 

I think that’ll be enough out of me for now, don’t you? (Rhetorical question… not necessary to answer…!!! – *Laughs*) Yeah, cuz we have to laugh don’t we? What’s the alternative, sit in a corner and cry while we bang our heads against the wall? Nahhhhh…

Good night “Night People”….


Copyright TB/RVL 2018 (Except where noted)

NB: Where used, quoted portions of other works are reproduced by permission, or under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976, wherein allowance is made for “fair use” for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.

This article may be linked to but may not be copied or reproduced, nor redistributed in any manner, including electronic without the express permission of the copyright owners.

The views and opinions presented in this article are the opinions of the author and/or contributors and do not necessarily represent the views and opinions of The Owner/s of RVL, their officers, assigns or agents. RVL and its officers do not personally, individually, or jointly necessarily recommend or condone any of the activities or practices represented.

For further information please see the RVL Website Disclaimer

 

Crossroads 2018: The PROOF of the pudding…

“To state the facts frankly is not to despair the future nor indict the past.”
~ John F. Kennedy ~

Written, Edited and Presented by
Tim

Good afternoon ladies and gentlemen,

You know, there’s a simple phrase that resounds, and echoes, throughout the modern culture on a VERY, annoyingly, regular basis – “Prove it…!”

Usually it’s in reference to a person claiming this, that, or the other about their Vampirism but there’s a place, and time, when it should be used and it should be used properly.

Accusations of misconduct, or misdeeds, are part and parcel of the modern Vampire culture and I guess we have to expect that when somebody gets upset with someone else. Calling people names like “paedophile”, “child molester”, “sexual predator”, “rapist”…well, that’s all well and good and, if there is evidence of conviction in a nationally, or State based, Sex Offenders Registry then it is justified and warranted BUT, and here’s the big “but”, if you have no proof for making said accusation, if you can’t support the claim with rock solid, incontrovertible and legally sound proof then you are committing an offence under the law and that, dear reader, gets you a black mark in the culture.

What’s the black mark? Well, you may get the title “Drama Queen”, you may get a name for yourself as a troublemaker and end up getting ignored, or shunned, by the mainstream culture. What’s worse, in this writer’s opinion, is the clear indication that you have no self-respect or dignity and therefore are clearly indicating that you should not be taken too seriously.

If you do it once you might get away with it by claiming you were in a bad mood, claiming your pet guppy passed away, claiming you had a bad day at work but if you persist and spread the poison far and wide then you will get a name as a douche and no one will take you seriously anymore. Now, you can sit back and say, “I don’t give a rat’s…” That’s fine, that’s your prerogative but the very fact that you don’t give a damn about anyone else reflects very poorly on YOU and, worse still, it reflects badly on people you call friends.

Take a look at this;

Img. source: Facebook

A most enlightening meme indeed and one that shows, step by step, how to avoid falling into the “Idiot” hole as you mingle.

Perhaps I could add another, “Never try and support your insupportable argument by yelling louder and getting other people to yell with you.” (Empty vessel syndrome)

Img. source: the register.co.uk

We all like to think that we are reasonable, educated, socially aware creatures and if we’re going to call ourselves that then we really ought to act like it. Let common sense and conscience guide you, apply critical thinking to things, question things, see if they make sense or they are backed by proof and evidence before you form an opinion, grab the pitchfork and brand and charge at somebody’s castle walls. You might just save yourself a whole lot of embarrassment and avoid the “Moron” label being plastered across your picture and name. That alone should make it worthwhile to you if for no other reason.

Proof and the burden of proof 

Burden of proof n. the requirement that the plaintiff (the party bringing a civil lawsuit) show by a “preponderance of evidence” or “weight of evidence” that all the facts necessary to win a judgment are presented and are probably true. In a criminal trial the burden of proof required of the prosecutor is to prove the guilt of the accused “beyond a reasonable doubt,” a much more difficult task. Unless there is a complete failure to present substantial evidence of a vital fact (usually called an “element of the cause of action”), the ultimate decision as to whether the plaintiff has met his/her burden of proof rests with the jury or the judge if there is no jury. However, the burden of proof is not always on the plaintiff. In some issues it may shift to the defendant if he/she raises a factual issue in defense, such as a claim that he/she was not the registered owner of the car that hit the plaintiff, so the defendant has the burden to prove that defense. If at the close of the plaintiff’s presentation he/she has not produced any evidence on a necessary fact (e.g. any evidence of damage) then the case may be dismissed without the defendant having to put on any evidence.

(Ref: https://dictionary.law.com/Default.aspx?selected=109)

Proof n. confirmation of a fact by evidence. In a trial, proof is what the trier of the fact (jury or judge without a jury) needs to become satisfied that there is “a preponderance of the evidence” in civil (non-criminal) cases and the defendant is guilty “beyond a reasonable doubt” in criminal prosecutions. However, each alleged fact must be proved separately, as must all the facts necessary to reach a judgment for the plaintiff (the person filing a lawsuit) or for the prosecution (the “people” or “state” represented by the prosecutor). The defendants in both civil suits and criminal trials need not provide absolute “proof” of non-responsibility in a civil case or innocence (in a criminal case), since the burden is on the plaintiff or prosecution to prove their cases (or prove the person guilty).

(Ref: https://dictionary.law.com/Default.aspx?selected=1642)

Even though these are the definitions drawn from a legal dictionary it doesn’t matter what situation you are applying them to, it doesn’t matter whether you are in an official Court of Law or in The Court of Public Opinion, if you present yourself with noting but a wild accusation you won’t achieve anything except annoying people, in a Court of Law, that will get you a contempt citation, in the Court of Public Opinion that will get you a general contempt.

Respect yourself when you want to make assertions, accusations or public statements… get the facts, get the truth, or truth’s (there’s always more than one side to every story) form your opinions and then get the evidence and proof to back them up before you shoot your mouth off or let your fingers do the talking without having the brain involved and just maybe we’ll be able to enjoy more of the TRUTH and less of the B.S.

Img source: ‘The X Files’
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Ten Thirteen Productions
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Copyright TB/RVL 2018 (unless otherwise noted)

NB: Where used, quoted portions of other works are reproduced by permission, or under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976, wherein allowance is made for “fair use” for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.

This article may be linked to but may not be copied or reproduced, nor redistributed in any manner, including electronic without the express permission of the copyright owners.

The views and opinions presented in this article are the opinions of the author and/or contributors and do not necessarily represent the views and opinions of The Owner/s of RVL, their officers, assigns or agents. RVL and its officers do not personally, individually, or jointly necessarily recommend or condone any of the activities or practices represented.

For further information please see the RVL Website Disclaimer