Interactive study programs underway

Featured

Pic. www.dreamstime.com

Pic. www.dreamstime.com

One of the goals at RVL has always been to support and endorse worthwhile efforts to increase the storehouse of knowledge about modern living vampirism, its needs, its necessities and its understanding.

To that end, and in order to maintain a focus on the studies that are developing and being being projected, we have created a new page source that can be found on the front page beneath the RVL banner.

The page will detail current interactive study efforts from many sources that are seeking to enhance the overall knowledge of the modern vampire.

In order to get your “study” listed on that page please feel free to send us an email to rvlmail@yahoo.com with a brief paragraph detailing the subject, the reason for the study and the time frame over which the study will be run.

From time to time we will make, from the entries on that page, a public post that will reach our readership and provide the links to, and the subjects of, the studies.

People and/or organisations who wish to take advantage of this free advertising will NOT be required to make any form of payment whatsoever, this is a service to share knowledge and the only commitment that we will ask of people running these studies is that they freely allow the sharing of the results via RVL when the time comes.

If “knowledge is power”, as they say in the classics, then “free knowledge is freedom and power”.

Following is the list of current interactive studies that are underway… the best results are going to be obtained with input… input from YOU, the person who frequents the VC/OVC. Please help to complete “the picture”.

Interactive Studies currently underway:
pop quiz header

One perfect day
Click to take the survey

( if the above link does not work for you please copy and paste the following into your browser bar – https://survey.zohopublic.com/zs/lgCNJX )

5 minutes, 10 questions, in an effort to understand the interrelation of the unconscious and conscious mental and emotional forces that determine personality and motivation. It is a matter of particular focus to examine the distinction between the same personality in RL as opposed to the Online persona and characteristics.

Not a survey nor a wide ranging study of that nature but rather the analysis of a particular subject. Since it would hardly be a controlled experiment if a volunteer were called on then the examination can only be about one person, hands up if it’s you?

Please take a few minutes and give your feedback to the questionnaire, it will greatly enhance the goal of the study. The necessary “psych” tests have been relayed to the person who is going to be making such assessment and now all that’s needed is a measure of external input to compare against those results.

Graphic source: mythunderstoodalliance.com

Graphic source:
mythunderstoodalliance.com

Heading up the return of the “Crossroads Program” in 2014 an invitation been issued to any person who may be interested in taking part in an open debate to register their interest BY EMAIL to rvlmail@yahoo.com

http://realvampirenews.com/crossroads-2014-an-editorial-and-an-invitation/

Your registration email should contain, in the subject line

Re: The great debate

In the body of your email please nominate the topic you are responding to and indicate whether you are on the “Affirmative” or the “Negative”, you MUST also include a brief (5 to 7 lines) summation of why you hold such a position.

The registrations we receive will be reviewed by a panel of five persons, two from the RVL E-Zine Staff and three from outside the RVL E-Zine team. Each panel member will cast votes for who should represent the affirmative team and votes for who should represent the negative team. The people selected will then be contacted and we will take it from there.

The initial proposal for the debate topic was;

Over the last five years has the Vampire “community” improved in its service to, representation of and wellbeing of its ‘rank and file’ membership?

Thus far, since issuing the invitation on February 15 of this year, we have yet to hear from anyone who wishes to visit this topic. Are we to conclude that no one can say “yes” or “no”?

Are we to conclude that, in the last five years, there has been zero improvement? Are we to conclude that no one really cares for the subject or that it doesn’t matter?

Very difficult to draw any conclusion without credible, sensible and forthright feedback. Perhaps it is the topic itself that is too challenging. With these thoughts in mind perhaps one of the following topics might attract the attention of some out there.

A) The original topic as detailed above

B) In or Out of the shadows? Should the VC/OVC be more circumspect, even to the point of complete withdrawal from the eyes of the mundane world?

C) Newcomers to the VC/OVC, trash or treasure? The sub-culture’s legacy or shame.

Of course, if none of these meet the tastes of prospective debaters then might we invite anybody who has a better idea to email us at rvlmail@yahoo.com and suggest a better topic.


Empirical studies underway:

1184-laboratory-planningMost recently we have had the pleasure of welcoming Lady Kaia to the pages of RVL E-Zine in discussions about the scientific approach to the understanding of real vampirism. A chance for everyone to give their feedback and information, not personally identifying, to lead to the formation of a physiological platform from which to consider modern living vampirism.

As Lady Kaia writes;
This research can help to make a scientific discovery about our nation and give some proof to the entire world about us. Don’t be shy, join us!

Thank you for all who will participate, you have helped us with a little step closer for understanding vampires nature and to give proof that world wants of us.“

An empirical study Part 1

http://realvampirenews.com/an-empirical-study-lady-kaia/

An empirical study Part 2

http://realvampirenews.com/an-empirical-study-part-ii-lady-kaia/

Lady Kaia’s Empirical Study will conclude on May 31st this year. If you haven’t already taken advantage of the opportunity to provide your valuable input into this initiative please take the time to share your knowledge and information.

 

It is our hope, at RVL, that some, or all, of these study items will draw some favourable reactions and that the cause of enhancing the understanding of the modern living human vampire can be furthered to the benefit of everyone in the sub-culture.

Respectfully,
RVL Staff

 

As always, if you have any questions or queries, feel free to contact us at: rvlmail@yahoo.com

Up a dark alley – Pre 800 B.C.

~ Tuesday I think, about dinner time actually ~

Introduction

This work, like the others in this series, is an essay/article for history buffs and for that I make no apology, in fact it’s aimed at vampire history buffs in particular and, more widely, anyone who has an interest in the “modernity” of the aesthetic of the vampire. I offer to take you on a trip that will be at once both familiar and unknown. I don’t proclaim this to be “scientific”, I don’t proclaim it to be anything other than a fact, information gathering and data presentation thing but the one thing I have believed for my whole life, since as early as I could form a rational and inquisitive focus is that the whole of humankind, and yes I’m including us, has lost something vital and important; some piece of knowledge, some sort of key that opens the lock to “much more than is dreamed of in our philosophies”, our Vampire philosophies and the search for that key is as important and as integral to who and what we are and where we came from, how we came to be, as any of the accumulated information we currently have. Of course, finding a key is only the first part of the dilemma, the real cruncher comes in trying to find the lock it opens.

Imagine you’re in a strange town, my town and I am your guide.

Reconstruction of the city of Ur in southern Mesopotamia c.2000 BC, based on excavation. www.staff.ncl.ac.uk

Reconstruction of the city of Ur in southern Mesopotamia c.2000 BC, based on excavation.
www.staff.ncl.ac.uk

In pretty much every town in every country in the world there is a main street, our town is no exception, well… except for the fact it’s thousands of years old…!

It is often heard, “the past has nothing to do with the modern concept”, really? Then why are we called vampires? The very word was born to describe exactly what we do albeit singularly referring to blood in the initial instance, and if we are going to use the word then it is my deepest and strongest belief that every nuance of that adopted word is important to the validity of what we know today as the Modern Human Living Vampire.

ascent
This particular article is going to be either the hardest one, or the easiest one, to prepare but the fun is going to be had in digging through the available, and often contradictory, mostly fragmentary and “wide open to interpretation” material. Nothing in this is going to be cut and dried, nothing is going to be “absolute” or guaranteed…it’s going to be available information arranged as chronologically as possible in order to attempt to demonstrate the earliest conception of the vampire, it’s going to be “guesswork”, “hypothesis” and “interpretation”, mine, and it’s going to attempt to theorize as to how a strange little superstition clung to existence to become a worldwide fascination that extends into every corner of our world today and will keep going into the foreseeable future.

Seriously, as an old high school history master of mine once remarked, “Open your eyes, history is rich and exciting and intoxicating and she makes a wild mistress.   (c.a. 1974)

Using that as a starting point the most sensible first step is to review the historical events of the time period we are considering.

A Vampcentric Timeline Pre 800 B.C. [1]

4000 B.C. – Sumerians arrive in Mesopotamia.

Sumer (from Akkadian Šumeru; [Sumerian] approximately translated means, “land of the civilized kings” or “native land” was an ancient civilization and historical region in southern Mesopotamia, modern-day southern Iraq and Kuwait.

Mesopotamia (from the Ancient Greek: Μεσοποταμία: “[land] between rivers”; (Arabic: bilād al-rāfidayn) (Syriac: Beth Nahrain): “land of rivers”) is a name for the area of the Tigris–Euphrates river system, corresponding to modern-day Iraq, Kuwait, the northeastern section of Syria and to a much lesser extent southeastern Turkey and smaller parts of southwestern Iran.”

http://en.wikipedia.org/

3800

Sumerians supplant Ubaidians in Mesopotamia and start cities.

3500

The Egyptian calendar originates. The intercalation of an extra month seems likely to have been regulated either by the heliacal rising of Sothis or by the inundation of the fields by the Nile. [3]

The first inundation according to the calendar was observed in Egypt’s first capital, Memphis, at the same time as the heliacal rising of Sirius. The Egyptian year was divided into the three seasons of akhet (Inundation), peret (Growth – Winter) and shemu (Harvest – Summer).

3300

Bronze Age begins in the Near East

3200

In Cuneiform writings in Sumeria Lilith appears as one of a group of Sumerian vampire/cannibal demons that included Lillu, Ardat Lili and Irdu Lili. (For a full treatment of the Lilith mythology please go to: Lilith ~ A study

3100

The First dynasty of Egypt is established.

A tablet from the reign of First Dynasty King Djer seemed to indicate that the Egyptians had established a link between the heliacal rising of Sirius (Egyptian Sopdet, Greek Σείριος Seirios) and the beginning of the year. Later analysis however questions whether it actually refers to Sothis at all. [2]

A set of demonic entities that harrow the dead in the between-realm of the afterlife, known as the Devourers, are prime examples of this. The Devourers, or Amam, feed upon various parts of body and spirit, and one is specifically said to feast upon blood. http://www.kheperu.org/vampirism/origins6.html

3000

Generally accepted origin of the Sumerian cuneiform writing system. [2] (Variable +/- 2,000 years)

Stonehenge construction begins. In its first version, it consisted of a circular ditch and bank, with 56 wooden posts.

The first known use of papyrus by Egyptians comes from around this period.

 

The Sumerians described a group of demonic, phantom-like entities that roamed about the lands searching for victims as the Ekimmu. These entities were also referred to as “evil wind gusts” and according to our interpretations of Sumerian mythology, wind is often shown as an expression of psychic or apparitional power. http://www.witchinghoursociety.com/

Other sources interpret the sometimes incorrectly read Ekimmu as The Edimmu. [1] These ‘Edimmu’ were a type of utukku in Sumerian mythology. They were perceived to be the ghosts of those who were not buried properly and, due to this, were vengeful toward the living and were held to be able to possess people if they did not respect certain taboos, such as the prohibition against eating ox meat. The Edimmu were thought to cause disease and inspire criminal behavior in the living but could sometimes be appeased by funeral repasts or libations. The Edimmu were also held to be completely, or very nearly, incorporeal, “wind” spirits that sucked the life out of the susceptible and the sleeping (esp. the young). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edimmu

The Ekimmu has never actually been labeled “vampire” because of their lack of reported blood consumption,

2800

Kish (an ancient city of Sumer in Mesopotamia, considered to have been located near the modern Tell al-Uhaymir in the Babil Governorate of Iraq, some 12 km east of Babylon and 80 km south of Baghdad) and the dominant city is challenged by Lagash (an ancient city located northwest of the junction of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers and east of Uruk, about 22 kilometers (14 mi) east of the modern town of Ash Shatrah, Iraq) and the Semites dominate Kish.

2700

220px-Izdubar GilgameshGilgamesh as illustrated in The Chaldean Account of Genesis (1876)

Abode: Earth, Symbol: Bull, Lion

Sumerian King, Gilgamesh ruled the city of Uruk (an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates river, on the ancient dry former channel of the Euphrates River, some 30 km east of modern As-Samawah, Al-Muthannā, Iraq).

2500

This time period is often cited in relation to the earliest traces of an entity that resembled what knowledge we have of Lilith. The information was discovered on a stone artifact (The Burney relief) that dated back to around 2500 BC.

The tale that gave rise to the perceptions of a “Lilith-like” entity was of the epic hero warrior Gilgameš, the tale was of Gilgameš and the Huluppu Tree.

 

After heaven and earth had been separated

and mankind had been created,

after Anûum, Enlil and Ereskigal had taken possession

of heaven, earth and the underworld;

after Enki had set sail for the underworld

and the sea ebbed and flowed in honor of its lord;

on this day, a huluppu tree

which had been planted on the banks of the Euphrates

and nourished by its waters

was uprooted by the south wind

and carried away by the Euphrates.

A goddess who was wandering among the banks

seized the swaying tree

And — at the behest of Anu and Enlil –

brought it to Inanna’s garden in Uruk.

Inanna tended the tree carefully and lovingly

she hoped to have a throne and a bed

made for herself from its wood.

After ten years, the tree had matured.

But in the meantime, she found to her dismay

that her hopes could not be fulfilled.

because during that time

a dragon had built its nest at the foot of the tree

the Zu-bird was raising its young in the crown,

and the demon Lilith had built her house in the middle.”

 (Excerpt from the translation of the tale of Gilgameš and The Hulu-ppu Tree By Samuel Kramer)

 

2340

Sargon of AkkadSargon of Akkad
Sargon und das Reich von Akkad

Sargon (a Sumerian in the city of Kish) overthrows the Sumerian king of Nippur. Sargon’s new kingdom is called Akkad. Following this Sargon extends his kingdom into Syria.

2320 – Sargon conquers Sumer.

2230 – The Akkadian dynasty ends.

2150 – Nomadic Gutians overruns Akkadians and Sumer, but Sumer revives.

2130 – Sumer regains independence from Akkadian rule.

 

2000 – Hittites migrate to Asia Minor.

In the Old Babylonian Empire Lilith appears in the Babylonian Gilgamesh Epic (2000-1600 B.C.) as a vampiric harlot who was unable to bear children. She was commonly depicted as a young girl with owl’s feet.

1950 – Elamites from Zagros attack Sumer. They overrun the Syrian Amorites.

Amorites go to Babylon to create colonies with Ashur as center of a kingdom that will be called Assyria.

1800 – Kassites defeat the Babylonians.

1753 – Ammorite King Hammurabi conquers all of Sumer. Hammurabi rules to 1750. His empire lasts until 1600, when the Kassites conquer most of Mesopotamia.

1700 (poss. to1100 BC?)

In Hindu sacred writings, the Rig Veda, describes creatures of supernatural origin having “vampiric” characteristics.

1593 – Hittites sack Babylon and end Hammurabi’s dynasty.

1500 – Composition of the Rig-Veda is completed (- ?)

1400 ( to 400) – Olmec civilization flourishes in Pre-Columbian Mexico, during Mesoamerica’s Formative period  

1365 – Ashur the Great, King of Assyria marries his daughter to a Babylonian.

1300 – The Assyrians control all of Mesopotamia.

1200 – Hittites’ capital Hattusas is wiped out (plague); Phrygians move in.

1100 – Use of Iron spreads.

1046 – The Zhou force (led by King Wu of Zhou) overthrow the last king of Shang Dynasty; Zhou Dynasty established in China

1020 (to 930 BC) Marks the beginning of the Kingdom of Israel (united monarchy) which occurred sometime between these dates.

1000 – Rise of the Assyrian Empire.

890 BC - Approximate date for the composition of the Iliad and the Odyssey by Greek poet Homer

 

In search of the first Vampire

 So, what, literally, is the oldest vampire known?

images mosquito in amber

Easy answer, the humble mosquito. They’ve been around for more than 170 million years, and still are. The fact that they can adapt and survive so readily, and require blood to maintain their life and wellbeing certainly puts them slap bang in the realm of the “vampiric”.

There, problem solved, question answered…! Umm… only thing is mosquitoes aren’t undead revenants that rise from their graves at night to prey on the living.

Leaving aside the obvious natural history option however, let’s attempt to concentrate on the origins of beliefs in the ‘vampire’ as a historical archetype.

Lilith – Cases for and against

There are a great number of inconsistencies associated with serious definition of “Lilith”, per se. From fragmentary representations recovered certain, and often diverse, interpretations have been made and due to the myriad influences that have been brought to bear on the mythology of this mysterious figure it has become virtually impossible to discern the single true original source of the myth; for example.

The Burney relief

The Burney relief

In the (Burney) relief itself the figure is adorned with a four-tiered headdress of horns, topped by a disk. This is a sign of a high-positioned deity in the pantheon. Demons were never depicted with horned crowns.

The connection to Inana is in the Lions on which the female figure’s bird’s feet rest.

The owls flanking her were always connected with the night and darkness and the netherworld. The pattern of scales on the lower base of the relief is a representation of the term Kur, which not only means “mountain, foreign land” but also “netherworld, underworld”.

The bird’s feet are a clear iconographic detail that points to a negative connotation of the female entity depicted.

The wings the figure has are drooping downwards. At the time this plaque was fashioned the drooping wings were a sign of an association with the netherworld.

The entity holds two rods and rings. Those are iconographic symbols of judgment and justice. Usually, the only deity depicted with one of those ring-and-rod-symbols was the sun-god, Utu/Shamash.

The female entity holds two of them, which shows that she holds even more power of judgment about humanity than the sun-god, who was the general deity of justice. The doubling of the rod-and-ring-symbol, together with the night-imagery, points to the entity being Ereshkigala – as Queen of the Netherworld, she has not just power over the living, but also over other deities and the dead. She is the ultimate judge.”

Stylistic comparisons place the relief, at the earliest, into the Isin – Larsa (beginning ca.1940 BC) period, or slightly later to the beginning of the Old Babylonian (beginning ca.1830 BC) period.

Lamashtû or Labartu (in Sumerian Dimme) was a very similar Mesopotamian demon to Lilitû, and Lilith seems to have inherited many of Lamashtû’s myths.

Lamashtû was considered a demi-goddess and daughter of Anu, the sky god. Many incantations against her mention her status as a daughter of heaven and her exercising her free will over infants. This makes her different from the rest of the demons in Mesopotamia. Unlike her demonic peers, Lamashtû was not instructed by the gods to do her malevolence; she did it on her own accord. She was believed to seduce men, harm pregnant women, mothers, and neonates, kill foliage, and drink blood and was a cause of disease, sickness, and death. Here then we see the first indications of the entities connection with vampirism in the drinking of blood. There are, however, no indications available that she did this in any particular way.”

Some texts mention Lamashtû as the hand of Inanna/Ishtar in place of Lilitû and Ardat-lili.

This period pre-dates the ancient Assyrian accounts that originated, and developed, between 1363 and 612 BC.

Stephen Langdon (1914) claims that Babylonian texts depict Lilitû as the sacred prostitute of the goddess Ishtar, the Assyrian and Babylonian counterpart to the Sumerian Inanna. Hurwitz similarly claims that older Sumerian accounts assert that Lilitû is called the handmaiden of Inanna or “hand of Inanna”. Sumerian texts allegedly state,

Inanna has sent the beautiful, unmarried, and seductive prostitute Lilitû out into the fields and streets in order to lead men astray.”

That is why Lilitû (Līlīṯu in Mesopotamian texts) is called the “hand of Inanna”.

The Assyrian lilitû

These demonic entities were said to prey upon children and women and were described as associated with lions, storms, desert, and disease. Early portrayals of such demons are known as having Zu bird talons for feet and wings. They were highly sexually predatory towards men but were unable to copulate normally. They were thought to dwell in waste, desolate, and desert places. Like the Sumerian Dimme, a male wind demon named Pazuzu was thought to be effective against them.

This could well have been the beginning of the assimilation of the earliest “Lilith” accounts with developing folklores. However, the nature of these entities was still demonic.

One source states that:

The oldest known term relating to Lilith would be the Sumerian word “Lili” (plural “Lilitu”), which seems to imply the same definition as our word “spirit.” In many ancient cultures, the same word for “air” or “breath” would also be used for “spirit.” The very word “spiritus” is one such example. The Hebrew “ruach” is another. Therefore, the Lilitu were either a specific type of demon, or were simply “spirits” in general.” Again, demonic entities but there is no proof linking the term “Lili” to the word “Lilith”; it could amount to the same as linking the word “game” and “gamete”.

What’s in a word?

The other big problem, of course, is where do we stop talking about demonology and start talking contemporary concept, and more appropriately, real vampires?

While it is true that the majority of peoples, if not all, have some mythology of “vampire like” creatures the differences are in the presentation, the physical, or alleged physical manifestation of these creatures. For example, a vampire that appears as human torso trailing entrails and flying through the air is bound to be defined as a supernatural, demonic entity otherwise it can’t exist. A person who attacks and kills a victim, mutilates them and drinks their blood is a psychopath, by most definitions, but are they a vampire? So, somewhere in between supernatural daemonic entity and psychopathic human murderer we will find the vampire.

Ancient images, contemporary interpretations

The remote Cave of “Swimmers” is located at Wadi Sura in the mountainous Gilf Kebir plateau of the Sahara, in southwest Egypt near the Libyan border and was discovered by Hungarian explorer. The main painted caves were discovered by the Hungarian explorer László Almásy in October 1933 and he devoted a chapter to them in his 1934 publication ‘Az Ismeretlen Szahara’, translated as ‘The Unknown Sahara’. In it he postulates that the “swimming” scenes are real depictions of life at the time of painting, suggesting a climate change from temperate to desert, seen at the time as a radical new theory.   

Seemingly in support of this hypothesis, In 2007, Eman Ghoneim discovered an ancient Mega-Lake (30,750 km²) buried beneath the sand of the Great Sahara in the Northern Darfur region, Sudan and the Wadi Sura has been identified as being a sheltered inlet within a promontory of the main plateau.

Cave of swimmers Egypt

http://www.pinterest.com/koeno/cave-art/

the-cave-of-swimmers-sea-peoples-aliens-falling-from-the-sky-ancient-cave-painting

 

 

 Photo by Patrick Gruban

So, one possible interpretation, a pedestrian one, is available and is probably the most plausible and easiest to accept, however, let’s consider, for a moment, alternatives. We have a wealth of “interpreted” data from this and other regions of the world that lead to certain learned conclusions being able to be made but even within that sphere there is much disagreement to be had over those interpretations; it’s the old “put ten experts in a room, ask them a question and get eleven different opinions” scenario”.

One of the most basic interpretations includes an acceptance of considered norms, i.e.

sky land segment 

Hence, what we might be looking at here is a representation of “sky” people and “land” people. With that consideration in mind have a look at the following pictures;

sky beings imagesWe have images of flying creatures represented in our “cave paintings” too.

It is vitally important, as we embark on a journey through the ages, that we separate two distinct entities in our minds, Vampires and Demons.

Number one; The Demon

an evil spirit; devil or fiend.

Origin:

1350–1400; Middle English  < Latin daemonium  < Greek daimónion,  thing of divine nature (in Jewish and Christian writers, evil spirit), neuter of daimónios,  derivative of daímōn; (def 6)  < Latin;  see daemon

and number two; The Vampire

a preternatural being, commonly believed to be a reanimated corpse, that is said to suck the blood of sleeping persons at night.

(in Eastern European folklore) a corpse, animated by an undeparted soul or demon, that periodically leaves the grave and disturbs the living, until it is exhumed and impaled or burned.

Origin:

1725–35;  (< F) < German Vampir  < Serbo-Croatian vàmpīr,  alteration of earlier upir  (by confusion with doublets such as vȁzdūh, ȕzdūh  air (< Slavic vŭ- ), and with intrusive nasal, as in dùbrava, dumbrȁva  grove); akin to Czech upír, Polish upiór, Old Russian upyrĭ, upirĭ,  ( Russian upýrʾ ) < Slavic *u-pirĭ  or *ǫ-pirĭ,  probably a deverbal compound with *per-  fly, rush (literal meaning variously interpreted)

As you will find out in subsequent entries in this series the two, at one time or another, have become so intertwined that it will often be difficult to distinguish between the two.

Refs:

http://realvampirenews.com/vampire-history-mythology-and-folklore/lilith-a-study/

http://www.bradshawfoundation.com/

http://the60sat50.blogspot.com/

http://dictionary.reference.com/

www.ancient.eu.com/timeline/‎

www.timelines.info › Empires and Civilizations‎

www.timemaps.com/history‎

1. http://en.wikipedia.org/

2. Marshall Clagett. Ancient Egyptian Science: A Source Book (1989) 10–11.

3. Parker, Calendars of Ancient Egypt, pp.30-2.

NB: Quoted portions of other works are reproduced under the “fair use for education” provisions of relevant legislations.

The views and opinions presented in this article are the opinions of the author and/or contributors and do not necessarily represent the views and opinions of The Owner/s of RVL, their officers, assigns or agents. RVL and its officers do not personally, individually, or jointly necessarily recommend or condone any of the activities or practices represented, and accept no liability, nor responsibility, for the use or misuse thereof. Anything that the reader takes from this article is taken at their own discretion.

This information is freely available to all FOR PERSONAL USE only, it may be reproduced, or linked to, on personal web sites WITH FULL CREDIT but it may not be used for commercial purposes nor for general distribution without PRIOR WRITTEN CONSENT from Real Vampire Life and our guest/s.

For further details please see our Website Disclaimer

Up a dark alley 1753 – 1857, The quiet years – Historical Timeline

By

Tim

(a.k.a. T.H. Hawkmoor)

 Introduction

This work is an essay/article for history buffs and for that, again, I make no apology, in fact it’s aimed at vampire history buffs in particular and, more widely, anyone who has an interest in the “modernity” of the aesthetic of the vampire. I offer to take you on a trip that will be at once both familiar and unknown. I don’t proclaim this to be “scientific”, I don’t proclaim it to be anything other than a fact, information gathering and data presentation thing but the one thing I have believed for my whole life, since as early as I could form a rational and inquisitive focus is that the whole of humankind, and yes I’m including us, has lost something vital and important; some piece of knowledge, some sort of key that opens the lock to “much more than is dreamed of in our philosophies”, our Vampire philosophies and the search for that key is as important and as integral to who and what we are and where we came from, how we came to be, as any of the accumulated information we currently have. Of course, finding a key is only the first part of the dilemma, the real cruncher comes in trying to find the lock it opens.

Imagine you’re in a strange town, my town and I am your guide.

abstract.desktopnexus.com

abstract.desktopnexus.com

This article series is, as I mentioned in the preface to “Up a dark alley 1858 to 1963″, not going to be arguing any of the myriad points of the “why and wherefore” that have been dissected, stitched together, re-dissected, had the internal organs scrutinized before being re-sewn back together… you get my point I hope? No, this article series is to educate on some of the lesser known “lights” in the proverbial darkness.

Seriously, as an old high school history master of mine once remarked, “Open your eyes, history is rich and exciting and intoxicating and she makes a wild mistress.”   (c.a. 1974)

Using that as a starting point the most sensible first step is to review the historical events of the time period we are considering.

History Snapshot: (Vampcentric naturally) 1753 – 1857 – The quiet years

1755

Samuel Johnson’s Dictionary is first published and The Great earthquake in Lisbon, Portugal kills over 60,000 people.

1756

France loses its North American colonies.

1757

Sees the beginning of the British Empire in India.

1759

Voltaire’s Candide and Haydn’s Symphony No. 1 are completed.

1762

Catherine II (“the Great”) becomes czarina of Russia.

1765

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Watt

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Watt

James Watt invents the steam engine.

1769

Sir William Arkwright patents a spinning machine

1772

Joseph Priestley and Daniel Rutherford independently discover nitrogen.

The Partitioning of Poland begins. (in 1772, 1793, and 1795, Austria, Prussia, and Russia divide the land and people of Poland between themselves effectively ending its independence.)

1773

In the U.S. the Boston Tea Party takes place.

1774

In the U.S., the First Continental Congress drafts the “Declaration of Rights and Grievances.”

1775

The American Revolution begins with battles of Lexington and Concord.

Priestley discovers hydrochloric and sulfuric acids.

1776

The U.S. Declaration of Independence is released.

1778

Capt. James Cook discovers Hawaii.

1781

Immanuel Kant’s, “Critique of Pure Reason is published.

1783

Beethoven’s first printed works are published.

1784

Crimea is annexed by Russia.

1787

The Constitution of the United States is signed.

1788

Pierre Simon marquis de Laplace

Pierre Simon marquis de Laplace

Pierre Laplace’s work entitled, “Laws of the Planetary System”, is released.

1789

The French Revolution begins with the storming of the Bastille.

In the U.S. George Washington is elected President.

1790

Aloisio Galvani experiments on electrical stimulation of the muscles.

Lavoisier formulates the Table of 31 chemical elements.

1791

The U.S. Bill of Rights is ratified.

1792

Mary Wollstonecraft’s “Vindication of the Rights of Woman” is published.

200px-Vindication1b

    Title page from the first American edition of Rights of Woman

Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette are executed in France.

Eli Whitney invents the cotton gin.

1796

A French general named Napoléon Bonaparte defeats the Austrian Army.

Edward Jenner introduces the smallpox vaccination.

1797

The first mention of vampires in English literature appears in Robert Southey’s monumental oriental epic poem “Thalaba the Destroyer“.

A German poem exploring the subject of the interactions between the living and the dead is published, it contains a prominent vampiric element, and was entitled “The Bride of Corinth” (by Goethe), it tells the tale of a young woman who returns from the grave to seek her betrothed

Excerpt (translated by Edgar Alfred Bowring)

From my grave to wander I am forc’d

Still to seek The God’s long-sever’d link,

Still to love the bridegroom I have lost,

And the life-blood of his heart to drink;

When his race is run,

 I must hasten on,

And the young must ‘neath my vengeance sink.”

1798

Napoleon extends French conquests to Rome and Egypt.

1799

The Rosetta Stone is discovered in Egypt.

1800

The tale “Wake Not the Dead” (aka The Bride of the Grave) is published and although it is attributed to Johann Ludwig Tieck, it may actually have been by Ernst Raupach. The tale was translated into English in 1823.

Napoleon conquers Italy and firmly establishes himself as First Consul in France. D.C.

Robert Owen’s social reforms are established in England.

Alessandro Volta produces electricity.

1801

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland is established with one monarch and one parliament however, Catholics are excluded from voting.

1804

Napoleon transforms the Consulate of France into an empire, proclaims himself emperor of France, systematises French law under Code Napoleon.

The Lewis and Clark expedition begins exploration of what is now northwest U.S.

1805

Lord Nelson defeats the French-Spanish fleets in the Battle of Trafalgar. Napoleon is victorious over Austrian and Russian forces at the Battle of Austerlitz.

1807

Robert Fulton makes first successful steamboat trip on Clermont between New York City and Albany.

1808

In the U.S., Congress bars importation of slaves.

Beethoven’s Fifth and Sixth Symphonies are performed for the first time.

1810

Common vampire bat

Common vampire bat

The common vampire bat was first classified as Phyllostoma rotundum by Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire.

Reports of sheep being killed, by having their jugular veins cut and their blood drained, circulate throughout northern England.

1812

Napoleon’s Grand Army invades Russia in June. Forced to retreat in winter, most of Napoleon’s 600,000 men are lost.

1813

The poem “The Giaour” , is published. In this poem, it is held, that Byron demonstrated his familiarity with the Greek vampiric being the Vrykolakas.

Excerpt from, “The Giaour“…

But first, on earth as vampire sent,

Thy corpse shall from its tomb be rent:

Then ghastly haunt thy native place,

And suck the blood of all thy race;

 

There from thy daughter, sister, wife,

At midnight drain the stream of life;

Yet loathe the banquet which perforce

Must feed thy livid living corpse:

 

Thy victims ere they yet expire

Shall know the demon for their sire,

As cursing thee, thou cursing them,

Thy flowers are withered on the stem.”

1814

The French are defeated by allies (Britain, Austria, Russia, Prussia, Sweden, and Portugal) in War of Liberation. Napoleon is exiled to the island of Elba, off the Italian coast.

George Stephenson builds first practical steam locomotive.

1815

Napoleon returns from exile and the “Hundred Days” conflict begins. Napoleon is defeated by Wellington at Waterloo.

1819

https://sites.dartmouth.edu/library/tag/rare-books/

https://sites.dartmouth.edu/library/tag/rare-books/

Generally regarded as being a pivotal point in the genre of Vampire fiction, Dr. John Polidori’s “The Vampyre: A tale“, is published. It is widely held that Byron’s own wild life became the model for Polidori’s undead protagonist.

Vampirismus“; a section in “Die Erzählungen der Serapionsbrüder” by Ernst Theodor Amadeus Hoffmann.

Simón Bolívar liberates New Granada (now Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador) as Spain loses its hold on the South American countries.

1820

An unauthorized sequel to Polidori’s tale by Cyprien Bérard is published called “Lord Ruthwen ou les Vampires“. The work is often erroneously attributed to Charles Nodier. Nodier himself adapted “The Vampyre” into the first vampire stage melodrama, “Le Vampire“. Unlike Polidori’s original story, however, Nodier’s play was set in Scotland

1821

Smarra, ou les Demons de la Nuit” (“Smarra, or Night of the Demons“) by Charles Nodier. (French Lit.)

1822

Greece proclaims itself a republic and seeks independence from Turkey. Turks invade Greece. War ends and Brazil becomes independent of Portugal.

Schubert’s Eighth Symphony (“The Unfinished”) is played.

1823

Hans of Iceland” by Victor Hugo is published.

1824

Mexico becomes a republic, three years after declaring its independence from Spain. Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony is played.

1825

La Vampire Ou La Vierge De Hongrie” (“The Vampire or The Hungarian Virgin“) by Étienne-Léon de Lamothe-Langon is published and though this is the commonly accepted date of release it may actually not have appeared until 1828.

The first passenger-carrying railroad in England begins operation.

1826

Der Vampyre und seine Braut” (The Vampire and his Bride) by Spindler is published.

Joseph-Nicéphore Niepce takes the world’s first photograph.

1827

La Guzla, ou Choix de Poesies Illyriques” by Prosper Merimee is, allegedly, an authentic collection of folklore but some reports have it that they are, in the majority, works of fiction by Merimee.

Der Vampyr” by Friederike Ellmenreich appears.

1828

Regarded as a seminal point in vampire literature, Elizabeth Caroline Grey’s, “The Skeleton Count“, or “The Vampire Mistress” is published. It is widely believed to be the first vampire story published by a woman.

The story of this volume is that is actually a forgery supposedly published in the (fabricated) weekly paper “The Casket” in 1828, but “discovered” by Peter Haining before 1995. Continuing the fake pedigree, “It was later published in the US under the title “Lena Cameron; Or, The Four Sisters” (Philadelphia: T.B. Peterson & Bros., [ca. 1850]), and in the 1995 collection “The Vampire Omnibus” REF: LINK

Der Vampyre, oder die Totenbraut” (The Vampyre and the Dead Bride) by Theodor Hildebrand.

Russia declares war on Turkey over Greece. Greece is also aided by France and Britain.

1829

With the war of 1828-29 ending, the Turks recognize Greek independence.

1832

Henry Steel Olcott, American religious leader, author and cofounder of the Theosophist movement, is born in Orange, N.J.

1833

Slavery is abolished in the British Empire.

1834

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analytical_Engine

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analytical_Engine

Charles Babbage invents the “analytical engine,” the precursor of computers.

1835

Lit. “Viy” by Nikolai Vasilevic Gogol.

1836

The Dead Lover” (aka La Morte Amoureuse; Clarimonde, or The Beautiful Vampire; The Dead Woman in Love; The Dead Leman) by Theophile Gautier is published.

The Mexican army besieges Texans in Alamo and the entire garrison is wiped out. Texas gains independence from Mexico after winning Battle of San Jacinto.

1837

victoria_2

Victoria becomes queen of Great Britain.

1838

Edgar Allan Poe’s “Ligeia” appears in “The Vampire Archives

1839

The Family of the Vourdalak” (Sem’ya Vurdalaka) by Aleksey Konstantinovich Tolstoy is published.

1840

Der tote Gast” (The Dead Guest) by Zschokke is attributed to this year, again, however, it may actually have been published as late as 1869.

Lower and Upper Canada united.

1841

The Vampire” (Upyr) by Aleksey Konstantinovich Tolstoy appears.

1842

Crawford Long uses first anesthetic (ether).

1844

Samuel F. B. Morse patents the telegraph.

1845

The Last of the Vampires” by Smyth Upton is published.

Edgar Allan Poe (born Edgar Poe; January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849)

Edgar Allan Poe (born Edgar Poe; January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849)

Edgar Allan Poe publishes The Raven and Other Poems.

1846

Failure of the potato crop causes famine in Ireland.

1847

Influential works of “literature” include the penny dreadful “Varney the Vampire“.

Abraham “Bram” Stoker, (died 1912) is born in Dublin, Ireland – Stoker was the author of Dracula, the key work in the development of the modern literary vampyre myth.

1848

Vampyren” by Viktor Rydberg is published.

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels’s Communist Manifesto appears.

1849

Vincenzo Verzeni is born in Bettanuco, Bergamasco region. (In 1874 a court found Verzeni guilty of two murders; involving the “biting and sucking of the blood of his victims” and of the attempted murder of four more women.)

The Carpathian Mountains” (aka “The Pale Lady“) from “The Thousand and One Ghosts” (Les Mille et un Fantomes) by Alexandre Dumas & Paul Bocage is published. The original is French and translated into English for the chapter “The Thousand and One Ghosts” in The Vampire Omnibus REF: LINK

The California gold rush begins.

1851

Alexandre Dumas, père re-dramatises the Bérard version of “Lord Ruthwen ou les Vampires” (1820) in a play also entitled “Le Vampire“.

1852

La Baronne Trépassée” (The Dead Baroness) by Pierre Alexis Ponson du Terrail is published. (It is translated in 2007 as, “The Vampire and the Devil’s Son” by Brian Stableford)

The South African Republic is established.

1853

The Crimean War begins as Turkey declares war on Russia.

1854

Nicholas I of Russia occupies the Danubian provinces of Turkey.

Baron von Haxthausen reports on the case of the Dakhanavar (Mythology; Armenia.) A vampire whom protected the hills and valleys around Mount Ararat in the Caucasians.

The case of vampirism in the Ray family of Jewett, Connecticut, is published in local newspapers.

Britain and France join Turkey in war on Russia.

——————————————————————————————————————–

 

So, dear reader, why do I call these The Quiet Years?

Predominantly I am looking at the lack of “vampire activity”, the actual incidences of cases of vampirism. The only, notable, reported event being the 1810 reports of sheep being killed by having their jugular veins cut and their blood drained, that circulated around northern England and the strange tale of the Ray Family of Connecticutt of 1854. Hardly the sort of thing that proves dominant and rampant vampire activity in any great measure.

Of course everybody was mostly pre-occupied with the great and far reaching changes that were shaking the known world. The Napoleonic Wars, the American Independence struggles, the French Revolution, the Crimean War, Victoria’s accession to the English throne and, overshadowing all of this, social reforms and the birth of the Industrial Revolution.

No, the vampire’s “quiet years” were dominated by the classical literary vampire, indeed, it seems as though even the art world had moved on, in the main, from the “vampire” image as a subject. The thing most influential in keeping the vampire firmly in the public consciousness was popular literature of the time.

Go to Part 2

Up a dark alley, 1753 – 1857 – The quiet years Part 2

367px-Thalaba_the_Destroyer

The first mention of vampires in English literature appears in Robert Southey’s poem “Thalaba the Destroyer” (1797)

In the same year a poem exploring the subject of the living interacting with the dead, with a prominent vampiric element, was published, “The Bride of Corinth” (1797) by Goethe, was a tale in which a young bride returns from the dead seeking her betrothed.

In 1813 the poem “The Giaour”, was completed and published. In this poem, it is held, that Byron demonstrated his familiarity with the Greek vampiric being the Vrykolakas. This was followed, six years later, with the publication of Polidori’s “The Vampyre: A Tale” (1819) and it is widely believed that Byron’s wild life became the model for Polidori’s main character

In 1820 an unauthorized sequel to Polidori’s tale, by Cyprien Bérard, appeared entitled “Lord Ruthwen ou les Vampires” and was, erroneously, attributed to Charles Nodier.

Nodier himself adapted “The Vampyre” into the first vampire stage melodrama, “Le Vampire“. Unlike Polidori’s original story however Nodier’s play was set in Scotland. Alexandre Dumas, père later re-dramatized the Bérard version in a play also entitled “Le Vampire“.

There were a number of other contributions during this period that were directly concerned with the belief, the archetype and the history and myth of the vampire. These, although perhaps not mainstream, would certainly have enhanced the role of the written word in continuing to make vampires more popular and ever more in demand amongst the readers of the period. Works such as Voltaire’s “Philosophical Dictionary” (1770 ), which includes an article on vampires and the 1820 work “Historie Des Vampires” by Collin de Plancy, introduced as, “A scarse and famous history of vampires“.

Amongst, and from within, all these popular influential works vampires suddenly came to the attention of the masses with the publication of the penny dreadful, “Varney the Vampire” in 1847. Stepping out of the shadows of high classical literature for the educated and savvy the vampire had, for the first time, hit the “mass media” market and it was just in time to play right into the hands of the rising interest in the occult and metaphysical fashions of the following years.

Varney_the_VampireVarney the Vampire

In the main, fine art during this period of time was predominantly concerned with Romanticism and Impressionism and looking for vampires in that is like looking for needles in haystacks. I did come across one fine example of an art type of the period however.

Charles_Meryon,_The_Vampire,_1853

 Charles Meryon, The Vampire, 1853

 Français : Le Stryge                English: The Vampire             Date: 1853

 Medium           Etching in brown ink on green laid paper; fifth state of ten

 “The etching shows one of the stone gargoyles projecting from a tower of Notre-Dame Cathedral. A flock of ravens circle in the air. The image was almost certainly inspired by Victor Hugo’s evocation of the medieval city in ‘Notre-Dame de Paris’ (1831), in which the writer describes a bird’s eye view from the cathedral towers.”  [Link]

Now, at first glance we see a gargoyle, or rather, what we have come to regard as a gargoyle but I would draw your attention to the inscriptions made below the piece by the artist.

Meryon,_The_Vampire inscription Meryon’s inscription at the base of the print proclaims

 ‘The insatiable vampire, eternal lust

 Forever coveting its food in the great city’.

Aside from this, and possibly one or two more minor works it seemed the whole motif in “dark” art had become entranced with the concept of the interactions between the living and the dead, between the living and “premature burial”, between the living and the inner psychopathology of the characters in the stories. In short, dear reader, there was a lot of morbid navel gazing going on.

IMG_1756 Wiertz

L’Inhumation précipitée” by Wiertz , 1854, depicts a cholera victim awakening after being placed in a coffin.

Refs:

1700–1799 (A.D.) World History | Infoplease.com

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vampire_literature

http://murderpedia.org/index.htm

http://monsterkidclassichorrorforum.yuku.com/directory#.Uysb24WYwWk

NB: Quoted portions of other works are reproduced under the “fair use for education” provisions of relevant legislations.

The views and opinions presented in this article are the opinions of the author and/or contributors and do not necessarily represent the views and opinions of The Owner/s of RVL, their officers, assigns or agents. RVL and its officers do not personally, individually, or jointly necessarily recommend or condone any of the activities or practices represented, and accept no liability, nor responsibility, for the use or misuse thereof. Anything that the reader takes from this article is taken at their own discretion.

This information is freely available to all FOR PERSONAL USE only, it may be reproduced , or linked to, on personal web sites WITH FULL CREDIT but it may not be used for commercial purposes nor for general distribution without PRIOR WRITTEN CONSENT from Real Vampire Life and our guest/s.

For further details please see our Website Disclaimer